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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: antagonism ; biological control ; cell wall degrading enzymes ; GUS-transformant ; monitoring
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The antagonistic Trichoderma spp. isolates P1 and T3 differed in their ability to colonize and to compete in sphagnum peat moss and on wood chips. In peat supplemented with straw, isolate T3 produced twice as many colony forming units (cfu) as isolate P1. On wood chips, the two isolates formed a similar number of cfu. When the two Trichoderma isolates were cultivated together approximately 85–90% of the cfu were from T3 on both substrates. The presence of Pythium ultimum in peat amended with straw did not influence the number of Trichoderma cfu formed. The two Trichoderma isolates produced different amounts of hydrolytic enzymes both in liquid cultures and in peat. Seven different enzyme activities were tested. Enzyme production by T. harzianum isolate T3 was less influenced by the type of carbon source amendment than that of isolate T. atroviride P1. Culture filtrates of isolate P1 grown on complex carbon sources were high in endochitinase activity, whereas cellulase and endo-1,3-β-glucanase activities were more pronounced in filtrates of isolate T3. There was no significant difference between the two isolates in their ability to protect cucumber seedlings against P. ultimum while the combination of the two fungi resulted in significantly less biocontrol than each isolate alone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: antagonists ; biological control ; comparative screening ; field screening ; rhizosphere competence ; field performance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Different screening methods for selection of biological control agents (BCAs), for controlling soil and seed-borne diseases, are discussed. The shortcomings of laboratory methods focused on mechanism of action are discussed and we conclude that these methods should be used with caution if candidates with multifactorial or plant mediated mechanisms of control are to be obtained. In vitro screens may be useful for specific groups of microorganisms, thus, screens for antibiotics may be relevant for Streptomyces spp., and promising results have been obtained using soil plating or precolonized agar methods to screen for mycoparasitism and competitive saprophytic ability. Experience with screening in the Nordic programme ‘Biological control of seed borne diseases in cereals’ is summarized. Research in the four participating countries – Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark – followed the same paradigm: that of obtaining antagonists, well adapted to different Nordic environments, and developing them as effective BCAs. Potential antagonists were isolated from different sources and in planta screening methods were developed in order to optimize selection of antagonists effective against a range of seed borne pathogens. Screens in the laboratory or greenhouse were followed by screening in the field. The different screening procedures are compared and evaluated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of plant pathology 76 (1970), S. 135-139 
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Samenvatting De meest algemeen voorkomende virusziekten van orchideeën in Nederland worden veroorzaakt doorCymbidium-mozaïekvirus (CyMV) ofOdontoglossum-kringvlekkenvirus (ORSV) of door een combinatie van beide virussen. Aan de waardplantenreeks van beide virussen wordt uitvoerig aandacht geschonken.
    Notes: Abstract The most commonly encountered virus diseases in orchid plants in The Netherlands are caused byCymbidium mosaic virus (CyMV) andOdontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), either singly or in combination. Data on host ranges are given.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 8 (1989), S. 1154-1157 
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The elastic interaction energy between tetragonal zirconia precipitates for different mutual orientations is considered. The results of numerical analysis of this procedure are compared with experimentally observed preferred orientation relationships in the ceria-magnesia-partially stabilized zirconia (CM-PSZ) system. Two variants appear favourable, a parallel-stepped precipitate configuration with precipitate centres stepped at about 20°, and orthogonal precipitates in an edge-face configuration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-3009
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: PACS 21.10.-k Properties of nuclei; nuclear energy levels – 23.20.Lv Gamma transitions and level energies – 25.70.-z Low and intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions – 27.70.+q 150≤A≤189
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract: The nucleus 166Hf has been populated by the reaction 96Zr(74Ge,4n) using a beam energy of 310 MeV. -rays were detected with the EUROBALL III detector array. Fourteen new normal-deformed rotational bands, of which six form coupled pairs, have been observed in 166Hf. Four previously known bands have been extended to considerably higher spin, and configurations of the new bands are proposed. Two different bands have been assigned configurations involving the same orbitals at high spin. The two coupling schemes, deformation and rotation alignment, are discussed in connection with this new observation, which calls for a formulation of co-existing coupling schemes in six-quasiparticle structures involving the same orbitals at high spin.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2746
    Keywords: grain boundaries ; migration rates ; recrystallization ; stereology ; orientation imaging ; texture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract When plastically deformed metallic materials are annealed, new strain free grains emerge from the microstructure and grow by means of grain boundary migration until the deformation microstructure is eliminated. This process is called recrystallization. In this paper the various methods by which grain boundary migration rates are measured stereologically in order to characterize the growth process are described and compared using illustrations from recrystallization experiments on commercial AA1050 aluminum. It seems abundantly clear that during recrystallization of cold-deformed materials, isothermal grain boundary migration rates decrease with time and reasons for such a decrease are discussed. A new methodology whereby migration rates of the individual recrystallization texture components may be quantified by combining stereology and orientation imaging by the electron back scattered pattern analysis is outlined. By illustration, recent experiments on aluminum and copper are summarized documenting the slight growth rate advantage the cube texture component (001)[100] possesses during recrystallization of cold rolled material. The role of orientation pinning effects on grain boundary migration is described briefly. It appears that such pinning effects allow recrystallized grains emerging from the weaker deformation texture components to enjoy an average growth rate advantage over those emerging from the stronger deformation texture components.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract An FM/CW radar sounding system designed and built by one of us (Richter, 1969) reveals atmospheric wave structure in unparalleled detail. The most outstanding features evident in the record are; internal gravity waves; features resembling Kelvin/Helmholtz instability structures; and multiple layering, often with lamina only a few meters thick. This paper shows a variety of atmospheric structural patterns and compares them with several hypothetical models of internal waves to obtain more insight into the atmospheric processes at work. Special attention is given to the distribution of the Richardson number in trapped and untrapped gravity waves. It is proposed that the multiple layers result from untrapped internal gravity waves whose propagation vector is directed nearly vertically within very stable height regions. It is argued that the layers are caused by dynamic instability resulting from reduction in the Richardson number due to wave induced shear and to some background wind shear when the amplitude-to-wavelength ratio grows during propagation into thermally stable height regions of the atmosphere.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Simultaneous lidar and FM-CW (frequency modulated-continuous wave) radar observations are presented and both common and different features observed with the two remote sensors are described. Among the common features are Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) waves and turbulent structures. The potential of the FM-CW radar as a meteorological tool for aiding fog dissipation forecasts is illustrated. The data also indicate that the radar often detects echoes from height regions which coincide with cloud tops. A new FM-CW radar sounder is described which incorporates scanning capability and which is fully mobile. Examples of recent observations are presented illustrating the capabilities of this second generation radar sounder. Future applications of the FM-CW radar sounder, such as investigations of the exact nature of the mechanism responsible for the radar returns, require accurate calibration of the radar sounder. It is shown that resolution and sensitivity of a linear frequency-modulated FM-CW radar depend on the time delay of the signal. Range dependency on resolution and sensitivity is calculated for various periodic and stochastic perturbations in a linear modulation and good agreement is found between calculated and measured values.
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