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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2007. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Ocean Modelling 17 (2007): 338-356, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.03.002.
    Description: A high-resolution numerical model is used to examine the formation and variability of the North Pacific Subtropical ModeWater (STMW) over a 3-year period. The STMW distribution is found to be highly variable in both space and time, a characteristic often unexplored because of sparse observations or the use of coarse resolution simulations. Its distribution is highly dependent on eddies, and where it was renewed during the previous winter. Although the potential vorticity fluxes associated with down-front winds can be of the same order of magnitude or even greater than the diabatic ones due to air-sea temperature differences, the latter dominate the potential vorticity budget on regional and larger scales. Air-sea fluxes, however, are dominated by a few strong wind events, emphasizing the importance of short time scales in the formation of mode waters. In the Kuroshio Extension region, both advection and mixing play important roles to remove the STMW from the formation region.
    Description: This work was sponsored by the National Science Foundation OCE-0220161 (S.J.) and OCE-0221781/0549225 (J.M.), the Office of Naval Research (J.M., M.M.), Department of Energy/CCPP (M.M.), and the Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER64119 (J.M.).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 35 (2008): L17601, doi:10.1029/2008GL034778.
    Description: Ocean bottom pressure estimates from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have been validated by comparisons with an array of in situ bottom pressure measurements. The 600 km by 600 km array comprised 46 bottom pressure sensors that were part of the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS). Validations in other ocean regions have been limited by available data to pointwise bottom pressure measurements. Spatially-averaged monthly-mean bottom pressure over the KESS array is highly correlated with GRACE bottom pressure estimated at the center of the array. The correlations are nearly equally high for three standard choices of spatial smoothing radius applied to GRACE estimates, 300, 500, and 750 km. In contrast, pointwise comparisons between GRACE and individual bottom pressures are high or low in sub-regions of KESS, depending partially upon the local variance of deep mesoscale eddies whose energetic length scales are shorter than 300 km. KESS is a suitable validation experiment for the GRACE estimates at monthly scales with 300 to 750 km spatial radius of smoothing.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF grant OCE-0221008.
    Keywords: Ocean bottom pressure ; GRACE ; Kuroshio Extension
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 39 (2009): 1756-1775, doi:10.1175/2009JPO4085.1.
    Description: A parameterization of vertical diffusivity in ocean general circulation models has been implemented in the ocean model component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). The parameterization represents the dynamics of the mixing in the abyssal ocean arising from the breaking of internal waves generated by the tides forcing stratified flow over rough topography. This parameterization is explored over a range of parameters and compared to the more traditional ad hoc specification of the vertical diffusivity. Diapycnal mixing in the ocean is thought to be one of the primary controls on the meridional overturning circulation and the poleward heat transport by the ocean. When compared to the traditional approach with uniform mixing, the new mixing parameterization has a noticeable impact on the meridional overturning circulation; while the upper limb of the meridional overturning circulation appears to be only weakly impacted by the transition to the new parameterization, the deep meridional overturning circulation is significantly strengthened by the change. The poleward ocean heat transport does not appear to be strongly affected by the mixing in the abyssal ocean for reasonable parameter ranges. The transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current through the Drake Passage is related to the amount of mixing in the deep ocean. The new parameterization is found to be energetically consistent with the known constraints on the ocean energy budget.
    Description: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants ATM 02-00929 and OCE 02-41061.
    Keywords: General circulation models ; Parameterization ; Abyssal circulation ; Ocean models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 38 (2008): 1764-1779, doi:10.1175/2008JPO3921.1.
    Description: Middepth, time-mean circulation in the western North Pacific Ocean (28°–45°N, 140°–165°E) is investigated using drift information from the profiling floats deployed in the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS) and the International Argo programs. A well-defined, cyclonic recirculation gyre (RG) is found to exist north of the Kuroshio Extension jet, confined zonally between the Japan Trench (145°E) and the Shatsky Rise (156°E), and bordered to the north by the subarctic boundary along 40°N. This northern RG, which is simulated favorably in the eddy-resolving OGCM for the Earth Simulator (OFES) hindcast run model, has a maximum volume transport at 26.4 Sv across 159°E and its presence persists on the interannual and longer time scales. An examination of the time-mean x-momentum balance from the OFES hindcast run output reveals that horizontal convergence of Reynolds stresses works to accelerate both the eastward-flowing Kuroshio Extension jet and a westward mean flow north of the meandering jet. The fact that the northern RG is eddy driven is further confirmed by examining the turbulent Sverdrup balance, in which convergent eddy potential vorticity fluxes are found to induce the cyclonic RG across the background potential vorticity gradient field. For the strength of the simulated northern RG, the authors find the eddy dissipation effect to be important as well.
    Description: This study was supported by NSF through Grant OCE-0220680 (UH) and OCE-0220161 (WHOI).
    Keywords: Gyres ; Ocean circulation ; Profilers ; Jets ; Transport
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 36 (2006): 457-473, doi:10.1175/JPO2849.1.
    Description: Properties and seasonal evolution of North Pacific Ocean subtropical mode water (STMW) within and south of the Kuroshio Extension recirculation gyre are analyzed from profiling float data and additional hydrographic and shipboard ADCP measurements taken during 2004. The presence of an enhanced recirculation gyre and relatively low mesoscale eddy variability rendered this year favorable for the formation of STMW. Within the recirculation gyre, STMW formed from late-winter convection that reached depths greater than 450 m near the center of the gyre. The lower boundary of STMW, corresponding to σθ 25.5 kg m−3, was set by the maximum depth of the late-winter mixed layer. Properties within the deep portions of the STMW layer remained largely unchanged as the season progressed. In contrast, the upper boundary of the STMW layer eroded steadily as the seasonal thermocline deepened from late April to August. Vertical eddy diffusivity responsible for this erosion was estimated from a budget analysis of potential vorticity to be in the range of 2–5 × 10−4 m2 s−1. The latitudinal extent of the STMW formation was narrow, extending from 30°N to the Kuroshio Extension jet near 35°N. South of 30°N, STMW did not form locally but was transported from the recirculation gyre by lateral induction.
    Description: This study was supported by NSF as part of a Collaborative Research Project (OCE- 0220680 to UH, OCE-0221008 to URI, and OCE- 0220161 to WHOI).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 41 (2011): 1182–1208, doi:10.1175/2010JPO4564.1.
    Description: The authors use data collected by a line of tall current meter moorings deployed across the axis of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) jet at the location of maximum time-mean eddy kinetic energy to characterize the mean jet structure, the eddy variability, and the nature of eddy–mean flow interactions observed during the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS). A picture of the 2-yr record mean jet structure is presented in both geographical and stream coordinates, revealing important contrasts in jet strength, width, vertical structure, and flanking recirculation structure. Eddy variability observed is discussed in the context of some of its various sources: jet meandering, rings, waves, and jet instability. Finally, various scenarios for eddy–mean flow interaction consistent with the observations are explored. It is shown that the observed cross-jet distributions of Reynolds stresses at the KESS location are consistent with wave radiation away from the jet, with the sense of the eddy feedback effect on the mean consistent with eddy driving of the observed recirculations. The authors consider these results in the context of a broader description of eddy–mean flow interactions in the larger KE region using KESS data in combination with in situ measurements from past programs in the region and satellite altimetry. This demonstrates important consistencies in the along-stream development of time-mean and eddy properties in the KE with features of an idealized model of a western boundary current (WBC) jet used to understand the nature and importance of eddy–mean flow interactions in WBC jet systems.
    Description: This work was supported by National Science Foundation funding for the KESS program under Grants OCE-0220161 (SW, NGH, and SRJ), OCE- 0825550 (SW), OCE-0850744 (NGH), and OCE-0849808 (SRJ). SW was also supported by the MIT Presidential Fellowship. The financial assistance of the Houghton Fund, the MIT Student Assistance Fund, and WHOI Academic Programs is also gratefully acknowledged.
    Keywords: Eddies ; Boundary currents ; Jets
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 25 (2012): 1361–1389, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00091.1.
    Description: The ocean component of the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) is described, and its solutions from the twentieth-century (20C) simulations are documented in comparison with observations and those of CCSM3. The improvements to the ocean model physical processes include new parameterizations to represent previously missing physics and modifications of existing parameterizations to incorporate recent new developments. In comparison with CCSM3, the new solutions show some significant improvements that can be attributed to these model changes. These include a better equatorial current structure, a sharper thermocline, and elimination of the cold bias of the equatorial cold tongue all in the Pacific Ocean; reduced sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity biases along the North Atlantic Current path; and much smaller potential temperature and salinity biases in the near-surface Pacific Ocean. Other improvements include a global-mean SST that is more consistent with the present-day observations due to a different spinup procedure from that used in CCSM3. Despite these improvements, many of the biases present in CCSM3 still exist in CCSM4. A major concern continues to be the substantial heat content loss in the ocean during the preindustrial control simulation from which the 20C cases start. This heat loss largely reflects the top of the atmospheric model heat loss rate in the coupled system, and it essentially determines the abyssal ocean potential temperature biases in the 20C simulations. There is also a deep salty bias in all basins. As a result of this latter bias in the deep North Atlantic, the parameterized overflow waters cannot penetrate much deeper than in CCSM3.
    Description: NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The CCSM is also sponsored by the Department of Energy. SGY was supported by the NOAA Climate Program Office under Climate Variability and Predictability Program Grant NA09OAR4310163.
    Description: 2012-09-01
    Keywords: Ocean circulation ; Climate models ; General circulation models ; Ocean models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 24 (2011): 4973–4991, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4083.1.
    Description: The fourth version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) was recently completed and released to the climate community. This paper describes developments to all CCSM components, and documents fully coupled preindustrial control runs compared to the previous version, CCSM3. Using the standard atmosphere and land resolution of 1° results in the sea surface temperature biases in the major upwelling regions being comparable to the 1.4°-resolution CCSM3. Two changes to the deep convection scheme in the atmosphere component result in CCSM4 producing El Niño–Southern Oscillation variability with a much more realistic frequency distribution than in CCSM3, although the amplitude is too large compared to observations. These changes also improve the Madden–Julian oscillation and the frequency distribution of tropical precipitation. A new overflow parameterization in the ocean component leads to an improved simulation of the Gulf Stream path and the North Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation. Changes to the CCSM4 land component lead to a much improved annual cycle of water storage, especially in the tropics. The CCSM4 sea ice component uses much more realistic albedos than CCSM3, and for several reasons the Arctic sea ice concentration is improved in CCSM4. An ensemble of twentieth-century simulations produces a good match to the observed September Arctic sea ice extent from 1979 to 2005. The CCSM4 ensemble mean increase in globally averaged surface temperature between 1850 and 2005 is larger than the observed increase by about 0.4°C. This is consistent with the fact that CCSM4 does not include a representation of the indirect effects of aerosols, although other factors may come into play. The CCSM4 still has significant biases, such as the mean precipitation distribution in the tropical Pacific Ocean, too much low cloud in the Arctic, and the latitudinal distributions of shortwave and longwave cloud forcings.
    Description: National Science Foundation, which sponsors NCAR and the CCSM Project. The project is also sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Thanks are also due to the many other software engineers and scientists who worked on developing CCSM4, and to the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory at NCAR, which provided the computing resources through the Climate Simulation Laboratory. Hunke was supported within theClimate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling project at Los Alamos National Laboratory, which is funded by the Biological and Environmental Research division of the DOE Office of Science. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by theDOENationalNuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. Raschwas supported by theDOEOffice of Science, Earth System Modeling Program, which is part of the DOE Climate Change Research Program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated forDOEbyBattelle Memorial Institute under Contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830. Worley was supported by the Climate Change Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research and by the Office ofAdvanced Scientific Computing Research, both in the DOE Office of Science, under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Batelle, LLC.
    Keywords: Climate models ; Madden–Julian oscillation ; Sea ice ; Model evaluation/performance ; Meridional overturning circulation ; Convection ; Tropics
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-22
    Description: Dataset: Niskin bottle samples
    Description: This Establishing Radionuclide Levels in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Originating from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Facility (Fukushima Radionuclide Levels) Niskin bottle samples dataset includes the following data: calibrated CTD measurements of salinity and oxygen and Niskin bottle water samples. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the supplemental document 'Field_names.pdf'. A full dataset description is included in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'.
    Description: Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Marine Microbiology Initiative (MooreMarMicro), NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) OCE-1136693
    Keywords: Fukushima Radionuclide Levels ; Niskin bottle data ; CTD Sea-Bird SBE 911plus data
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/csv
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 26 (2013): 2833–2844, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00181.1.
    Description: The Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) is used to assess the climate impact of wind-generated near-inertial waves (NIWs). Even with high-frequency coupling, CCSM4 underestimates the strength of NIWs, so that a parameterization for NIWs is developed and included into CCSM4. Numerous assumptions enter this parameterization, the core of which is that the NIW velocity signal is detected during the model integration, and amplified in the shear computation of the ocean surface boundary layer module. It is found that NIWs deepen the ocean mixed layer by up to 30%, but they contribute little to the ventilation and mixing of the ocean below the thermocline. However, the deepening of the tropical mixed layer by NIWs leads to a change in tropical sea surface temperature and precipitation. Atmospheric teleconnections then change the global sea level pressure fields so that the midlatitude westerlies become weaker. Unfortunately, the magnitude of the real air-sea flux of NIW energy is poorly constrained by observations; this makes the quantitative assessment of their climate impact rather uncertain. Thus, a major result of the present study is that because of its importance for global climate the uncertainty in the observed tropical NIW energy has to be reduced.
    Description: This research was funded as part of the Climate Process Team on internal wave-driven mixing with NSF Grant Nr E0968771 at NCAR.
    Description: 2013-11-01
    Keywords: Fronts ; Inertia-gravity waves ; Mesoscale processes ; Mixing ; Nonlinear dynamics
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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