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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 310 (1984), S. 36-38 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Mesoscale processes, which operate on horizontal scales from 1 km or so to several hundreds of kilometres, bridge the region in size between the synoptic- and planetary-scale motions resolved on routine weather maps and the microscale motions where viscous dissipation acts to reduce the ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A climatology of ozone for altitudes from FL190 to FL590 (19,000 to 59,000 ft) is presented. Climatological tables are given in two appendixes: one with d deg latitude resolution on a monthly basis, and one with 10 deg latitude resolution on a seasonal basis. Data were taken from 11,472 balloon-borne ozonesondes launched at 60 stations from 1963 to 1980 and from over 160,000 observations made by the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program on 4417 commercial airliner flights from 1975 to 1979. Case study and statistical comparisons of results from these two data sets showed that they are compatible and can be combined. Several examples of analyses that can be made by using the tabulated data are given and discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.60:2303 , E-1626 , NASA-TP-2303
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Summary studies are presented for the entire cloud observation archive from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Studies are also presented for GASP particle-concentration data gathered concurrently with the cloud observations. Cloud encounters are shown on about 15 percent of the data samples overall, but the probability of cloud encounter is shown to vary significantly with altitude, latitude, and distance from the tropopause. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover, and the cloud-encounter statistics are shown to be consistent with the classical mid-latitude cyclone model. Observations of clouds spaced more closely than 90 minutes are shown to be statistically dependent. The statistics for cloud and particle encounter are utilized to estimate the frequency of cloud encounter on long-range airline routes, and to assess the probability and extent of laminaar flow loss due to cloud or particle encounter by aircraft utilizing laminar flow control (LFC). It is shown that the probability of extended cloud encounter is too low, of itself, to make LFC impractical. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the narrative, analysis, and conclusions. Volume II contains five supporting appendixes.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85835-VOL-2 , NAS 1.15:85835-VOL-2 , L-15789-VOL-2
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Summary studies are presented for the entire cloud observation archieve from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Studies are also presented for GASP particle concentration data gathered concurrently with the cloud observations. Cloud encounters are shown on about 15 percent of the data samples overall, but the probability of cloud encounter is shown to vary significantly with altitude, latitude, and distance from the tropopause. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover, and the cloud encounter statistics are shown to be consistent with the classical mid-latitude cyclone model. Observations of clouds spaced more closely than 90 minutes are shown to be statistically dependent. The statistics for cloud and particle encounter are utilized to estimate the frequency of cloud encounter on long range airline routes, and to assess the probability and extent of laminar flow loss due to cloud or particle encounter by aircraft utilizing laminar flow control (LFC). It is shown that the probability of extended cloud encounter is too low, of itself, to make LFC impractical.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: L-15789-VOL-1 , NASA-TM-85835-VOL-1 , NAS 1.15:85835-VOL-1
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The thermal environment of commercial aircraft from a data set gathered during the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is studied. The data set covers a four-year period of measurements. The report presents plots of airplane location and speed and atmospheric temperature as functions of elapsed time for 35 extreme-condition flights, selected by minimum values of several temperature parameters. One of these parameters, the severity factor, is an approximation of the in-flight wing-tank temperature. Representative low-severity-factor flight histories may be useful for actual temperature-profile inputs to design and research studies. Comparison of the GASP atmospheric temperatures to interpolated temperatures from National Meteorological Center and Global Weather Central analysis fields shows that the analysis temperatures are slightly biased toward warmer than actual temperatures, particularly over oceans and at extreme conditions.
    Keywords: AIR TRANSPORTATION AND SAFETY
    Type: NAS 1.26:168247 , NASA-CR-168247
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Temperature data obtained by the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) during the period March 1975 to July 1979 are compiled to form flight summaries of static air temperature and a geographic temperature climatology. The flight summaries include the height and location of the coldest observed temperature and the mean flight level, temperature and the standard deviation of temperature for each flight as well as for flight segments. These summaries are ordered by route and month. The temperature climatology was computed for all statistically independent temperture data for each flight. The grid used consists of 5 deg latitude, 30 deg longitude and 2000 feet vertical resolution from FL270 to FL430 for each month of the year. The number of statistically independent observations, their mean, standard deviation and the empirical 98, 50, 16, 2 and .3 probability percentiles are presented.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:168106 , NASA-CR-168106
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The feasibility of obtaining measurements of Lagrangian turbulence at stratospheric altitudes is demonstrated by using the METRAC System to track constant-level balloons. The basis for current estimates of diffusion coefficients are reviewed and it is pointed out that insufficient data is available upon which to base reliable estimates of vertical diffusion coefficients. It is concluded that diffusion coefficients could be directly obtained from Lagrangian turbulence measurements. The METRAC balloon tracking system is shown to possess the necessary precision in order to resolve the response of constant-level balloons to turbulence at stratospheric altitudes. A small sample of data recorded from a tropospheric tetroon flight tracked by the METRAC System is analyzed to obtain estimates of small-scale three-dimensional diffusion coefficients. It is recommended that this technique be employed to establish a climatology of diffusion coefficients and to ascertain the variation of these coefficients with altitude, season, and latitude.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-137675
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Measurements of ozone concentrations at cruise altitudes both outside and in the cabin of a Boeing 747SP and Boeing 747-100 airliners in routine commercial service are presented. Plotted and tabulated data are identified by route and are arranged chronologically for each airplane. These data were taken at 5- or 10-min intervals by automated instruments used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). All GASP cabin ozone data obtained from October 1978 to early July 1979 are presented.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: E-2344 , NAS 1.15:86883 , NASA-TM-86883
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Tabulations are given of GASP ambient ozone mean, standard deviation, median, 84th percentile, and 98th percentile values, by month, flight level, and geographical region. These data are tabulated to conform to the temporal and spatial resolution required by FAA Advisory Circular 120-38 (monthly by 2000 ft in altitude by 5 deg in latitude) for climatological data used to show compliance with cabin ozone regulations. In addition seasonal x 10 deg latitude tabulations are included which are directly comparable to and supersede the interim GASP ambient ozone tabulations given in appendix B of FAA-EE-80-43 (NASA TM-81528). Selected probability variations are highlighted to illustrate the spatial and temporal variability of ambient ozone and to compare results from the coarse and fine grid analyses.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: E-1055 , NASA-TM-82742 , NAS 1.15:82742
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Additional statistics relating to the climatology of cloud cover at airline cruise altitudes are presented. The data were obtained between 1975 and 1979 from commercial airliners participating in the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). The statistics describe the seasonal, latitudinal and altitudinal variation in cloudiness parameters as well as differences in the high-altitude cloud structure attributed to cyclone and convective-cloud generation processes. The latitudinal distribution of cloud cover derived form the GASP data was found to agree with high-altitude satellite observations. The relationships between three different measures of cloudiness and the relative vorticity at high altitudes is also discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology (ISSN 0733-3021); 24; 74-82
    Format: text
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