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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: There are a lot of evidence that show hvdrocarbones cause some defect in reproduction and growth of bivalves. Bivalves are filter-feeder, thus accumulate more hydrocarbones in their tissue. In this study adult pearl producing oysters (Pinctada fucata) are used for all experimens. Samples of oysters, water and sediment from four natural beds; Nakhiloo (clean), Hendurabi (semipolluted), Lavan 1 (semipolluted) and Lavan 2 (polluted) were gatherd for 13 succesive months. Temperature, salinity, pH, oxygen and turbidity were recorded in each sampling. Oysters were kept in laboratory for adapation and then their length (DVM) were measured. Hemolymph samples were collected by insuline syring. Sediments and soft tissues of oysters were dissolved in carbon tetrachloride and when heated to extract oil hydrocarbones. UV, GC and IR were used to assay oil hydrocarbones. Accumulation of hydrocabones in soft tissue were as follows : Kakhiloo〈Hendurabi〈 Lavan 1〈Lavan 2 Regarding water, pollution in Lavan was more than Nakhiloo and Hendurabi, however due to water currents and closeness of Lavan 1 and Kakhiloo station to the coast pollution was less than Hendurabi. Results showed that there is not meaningful difference (P〈0.05) between sexual hormones in males and femals. Concerning progesterone cycle, there are two peak of spawning in oysters, major one in late spring and minor one in mid fall. Little elevation of progesterone start gamete and a lot of elevation release gametes_ Esteradiols gradually increase during gametogenesis and reach to maximum level during vitellogenesis. Testosterone have a synergestic role which esteradiol during vitellogenesis and also is effective in male sexuality. Multi regression test showed that there isn't meaning relationship (P〈0.05) between hydrocarbones pollution and esteradiols. However in Lavan 2 due to hormone concentration of hydrocarbones had some effect in sexual hormonal cycles. Turbidity was the most effective factor for releasing of progesterone. Progesterone was a stimulating factor for releasing estradiol also release of testosterone was corrolated with oxygen and depth of beds. One way analysis of variance showed that there is not significant relasionship (P〈0.05) between different factory in stations.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran
    Publication Date: 2017-04-27
    Description: The sohal surgeonfish or sohal tang, Acanthurus sohal, is a Red Sea endemic which grows to 16 in (40 cm) in the wild. Its striking blue and white horizontal stripes have made it what many consider the 'poster fish' for the Red Sea reef environment. It is a valued aquarium fish. A common species found in seaward edges of reefs exposed to surge. Aggressive and territorial. Feeds on various kinds of algae, mainly Sargassum, and fine filamentous green algae. Caught with nets; traps and occasionally by trawls.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Other , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
    Publication Date: 2017-04-27
    Description: Abudefduf vaigiensis (Indo-Pacific sergeant) may also be known as the Sergeant major although this name is usually reserved for the closely related species Abudefduf saxatilis. Adults live in coral reefs, tide pools, and rocky reefs. It is found in tropical and subtropical waters. Depth ranges of 1 to 15 meters are where people encounter this fish. A. Vaigiensis is benthopelagic. Maximum length is 17 cm in Persian Gulf. We report for the first time from Iranian waters (Kish Island). Its maximum recorded size is 20 centimeters. Often in aggregations feeding at midwater or tending nests among rocks and coral ledges. In large numbers at spawning sites that are timed with large tides that carry their pelagic offspring far offshore. Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding. Males turn bluer during spawning. They build nests on rocks or coral ledges. Then, females lay their eggs in the nests and the male fertilizes them. Males guard and aerate the eggs until they hatch. Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate. Males guard and aerate the eggs. Larvas of this species live in the open sea. Juveniles associated with drifting seaweed. Juveniles mature at 12 centimeters.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Other , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
    Publication Date: 2017-04-27
    Description: Scorpaenopsis barbata, lives along sandy beaches, rocky coastlines and coral reefs and in shallow waters. Its name refers to the fleshy outgrowth of skin protruding from its chin. They have a wide mouth and broad spiny head and venom glands that may occur at the base of fin spines which can produce deep and painful wounds. The feathery fins which cover the scorpion fish body help in the camouflaging of the animals into the surrounding coral. Also, the coral- like frilly, fleshy flaps of skin protruding from its chin add to the species camouflage ability and help the fish to blend with its surroundings. They rest during the daylight in crevices in the corals and from their position they suddenly leap at their un-suspecting prey which could be small fish and crustaceans. Maximum length female is 25 cm and male 17 cm in Persian Gulf. Eggs hatch in about 2 days into tiny fry that remain near the water surface until they grow bigger and they reach nearly about 5 cm in length, they swim down into the ocean to join the reef community.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Other , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
    Publication Date: 2017-04-27
    Description: The Cheilinus lunulatus (broomtail wrasse) is a species of wrasse native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. It is another one of the big wrasses which has a very low abundance on the local scale and in this case a limited geographical distribution. Broomtail wrasse lives in shallow waters, but also at 2 to 30 m of depth on the outer side of the reefs. It is often going around on the sandy bottoms, at the limit of the madreporic formations, in the prairies of submerged grasslands looking for shells it crushes easily, like a nutcracker. C. lunulatus can reach an average length of about 40 cm in female, with a maximum of 60 cm in males (Iran, Persian Gulf, Kish Island). In adults, the head is large and bright green, with small spots. The lips are large and blue. Females and juveniles show large, dark stripes on their flanks. It is oviparous. It nourishes of benthic animals, mainly molluscs, but also of crustaceans. It lives alone or in small groups of 4-8 individuals headed by a big male. As often is the case in the world of the labrids, it is a protogynous, hermaphrodite species, with females that, while growing, can transform into males. The fecundated eggs are entrusted to the currents and the young have a life expectancy of almost 20 years. Juveniles are found in shallower water. Adult depth distribution ranges from 5-45m.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Other , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
    Publication Date: 2017-04-27
    Description: Megalomma vesiculosum (Giant Feather Duster Worm) has reported for the first time from Persian Gulf (Iran, Kish Island). M. vesiculosum is a polychaete worm that reaches up to 12 cm in length. It has relatively few (about 50) tentacles, each with a large eyespot at the free end. It creates a long and tough tube, which is mostly encrusted untidily with large shell fragments and small stones. The tube protudes no more than 40-50 mm (in Iran, Kish Island) from coarse sand or muddy gravel at low water and below. The body and crown vary in color from yellowish to a reddish-purple brown and is usually spotted. The Giant Feather Duster Worm is a relative of the garden earthworm. It uses its colorful tentacles to filter the water for food, which includes phytoplankton and bacteria. M. vesiculosum requires a high density of phytoplankton and dissolved particulates to survive in a marine ecosystem. The worm generally buries its tube in the sand and the crown protrudes above to strain the water. If this worm sheds its tentacle crown, it is not getting enough food. It will usually regrow another, smaller than the previous. If this cycle continues, the worm will starve. Members of the class Polychaeta are mostly gonochoric (sexual). Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as ‘epitoky’, wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, ‘epitoke’, is formed from a benthic, non reproductive individual, ‘atoke’). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Other , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
    Publication Date: 2017-04-27
    Description: Thalassoma lunare is also named the Moon Wrasse because of its yellow caudal fin shapes like crescent moon with long upper and lower lobes. It is an inhabitant of coral reefs and surrounding areas at depths from 1 to 20. T. lunare is the most abundant wrasse species in the Persian Gulf. This species can reach 16 cm in total length in Iran, Persian Gulf, Kish Island. Moon wrasses are active fish, said to be moving all day long. They are also territorial, nipping, chasing, and otherwise harassing fish that get in their way. Being diurnal, wrasses have strong vision, although they also have a decent sense of smell. At night, they rest in niches often under rocks or other such structures. If needed, a moon wrasse may dig out a space under a rock by repeatedly swimming through it until it fits without struggle. They are protogynous hermaphrodites, all starting off as females and changing to males, a process which, for the moon wrasse, takes only 10 days. Some moon wrasses live in groups consisted of a dominant male, and a "harem" of about a dozen other wrasses, some female and some male. The alpha male is more brightly colored, and at every low tide hour, changes from green to blue, and goes into a show of attacking and nipping all the other wrasses. This is his way of showing his dominance to the rest of the males and keeping the females in check. During breeding season and before high tide, the alpha male turns completely blue, gathers up every single female, and the spawning frenzy begins.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Other , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    Kish International Campus, Tehran University
    Publication Date: 2017-04-27
    Description: Antennablennius variopunctatus, the Orange-dotted blenny, is a species of combtooth blenny found in coral reefs in the western Indian Ocean. A. variopunctatus is unique to the intertidal area and would be overlooked in conventional reef surveys. Maximum length is 8 cm in Persian Gulf (Iran, Kish Island). There are insufficient algae on the rocks, it is important to feed more frequently and supplement with algae rich food. A. variopunctatus is oviparous, their eggs are demersal and adhesive, and are attached to the substrate via a filamentous, adhesive pad or pedestal. Larvae are planktonic, often found in shallow, coastal waters. A. variopunctatus use the intertidal zone to varying degrees, at different times of tide and/or life cycle. Usage of the intertidal zone can be divided into three main categories: permanent residents - those that spend their entire life history (from juvenile through adult) in the intertidal; temporary (opportunistic/secondary) residents - those that spend only part of their lives in the intertidal (often as juveniles); transients - those that are only occasionally present in low-tide pools (likely trapped by an outgoing tide while foraging).
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Other , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    Kish International Campus, Tehran University
    Publication Date: 2017-04-27
    Description: Blenniella periophthalmus is a species of combtooth blenny found in coral reefs. It is commonly known as the blue-dashed rockskipper, bullethead rockskipper, false rockskipper, or the peppered blenny. B. periophthalmus is a marine, reef-associated species that occurs in tropical climates with a depth range of 0-5 m. We report for the first time from Persian Gulf (Kish Island, Iran).  This species inhabit exposed outer intertidal reef flats, where it can hide in cracks and holes. It is commonly observed clinging to rocks as the water recedes below them during the low cycle of the swell and this species is often confused with mudskipper gobies. Maximum length is 10 cm in Persian Gulf (Iran, Kish Island). B. periophthalmus has an oviparous life cycle, exhibits distinct pairing, eggs are demersal and adhesive, and are attached to the substrate via a filamentous, adhesive pad or pedestal. Larvae are planktonic, often found in shallow, coastal waters.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Other , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    Kish International Campus, Tehran University
    Publication Date: 2017-04-27
    Description: Pseudochromis nigrovittatus or Dottybacks are common inhabitants of coral reefs throughout the tropical Indo-West Pacific. P. nigrovittatus inhabits equally frequently mixed communities of macroalgae and hard corals and sparse hard coral communities on rock platform, including those dominated by Acropora, Porites, Galaxea. P. nigrovittatus was recorded from a depth range of 4–20 m. Maximum length is 8 cm in Persian Gulf (Iran, Kish Island). All dottybacks are hermaphrodites. The sexes are separate. There is a possibility of sexual dimorphism in P. nigrovittatus, such that males are usually bigger than females. Color and caudal fin morphology differences have also been observed. Dottybacks lay a demersal spherical egg of approximately 2–2.5 cm (300–500 embryos) in diameter, which is guarded by the male on the substrate until hatching. Reproductive behavior has been observed in pairs; before spawning, the male accompanies the female to the nest site. The spawning event takes between one to three hours depending on the species. Then, parental care is exclusively performed by the male until hatching. If appropriate tank conditions are maintained, spawning occurs every six days. Embryo development for both species lasts 96 h at 27°C. Newly hatched larvae are large (3.6–3.8 cm) and they start feeding the morning after hatching.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Other , NonPeerReviewed
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