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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 329 (1987), S. 321-323 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Seasonal oscillations of atmospheric CO2 recorded at Northern Hemisphere stations are caused primarily by the seasonal dynamics (photosynthesis, respiration and decomposition) of the terrestrial biosphere1'2. These oscillations, or amplitudes, demonstrate both interannual variations and a trend ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Law and hydrology are inextricably woven together in the pattern of water resource development in the west. The former attempts to allocate a limited and valuable resource as the latter tries to define the limits of the resource. In the past an inadequate data base has made hydrologic estimates difficult and political factors have pushed the law into possibly conflicting commitments in the Colorado River Basin.Through the use of tree-ring research, hydrologists have produced a more definitive data base and placed water allocations such as the Colorado River Compact of 1922 in a clearer long-term perspective. This data base leads to the conclusion that the surface-water supply is about 13.5 million acre-feet per year. This hydrologic limit must be apportioned within an existing legal framework - the “Law of the River.” As development approaches the resource limit in the Upper Colorado River Basin, lawyers and hydrologists must act in concert toward the equitable solution of allocation and reallocation problems.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 282 (1979), S. 390-392 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The July PDSI reconstruction was developed using six tree-ring chronologies from sites in the Hudson Valley. Each chronology is represented by only one tree species and is a mean-value function of 30-40 ring-width series from individual trees on a site. Five tree species are represented in the six ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 298 (1982), S. 637-639 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Both high-latitude tree growth and ice are influenced by many factors but can be significantly related to temperature2'5. In areas where ice conditions are influenced by a complex set of factors, a simple or direct relationship with climate may be difficult to establish. However, ice conditions in ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Annual Northern Hemisphere surface temperature departures for the past 300 yr were reconstructed using eleven tree-ring chronologies from high-latitude, boreal sites in Canada and Alaska, spanning over 90 degrees of longitude. This geographic coverage is believed to be adequate for a useful representation of hemispheric-scale temperature trends, as high northern latitudes are particularly sensitive to climatic change. We also present a reconstruction of Arctic annual temperatures. The reconstructions show a partial amelioration of the Little Ice Age after the early 1700's, an abrupt, severe renewal of cold in the early 1800's and a prolonged wanning since approximately 1840. These trends are supported by other proxy data. Similarities and differences between our Northern Hemisphere reconstruction and other large-scale proxy temperature records depend on such factors as the data sources, methods, and degree of spatial representation. Analyses of additional temperature records, as they become available, are needed to determine the degree to which each series represents fluctuations for the entire hemisphere. There appear to be relationships between trends observed in our Northern Hemisphere reconstruction and certain climatic forcing functions, including solar fluctuations, volcanic activity and atmospheric CO2. In particular, our reconstruction supports the hypothesis that the global warming trend over the past century of increasing atmospheric CO2 has exceeded the recent level of natural variability of the climate system.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Maximum latewood density data from trees at thirteen temperature-sensitive sites along the northern treeline of North America are used to evaluate the spatial patterns of response to four known volcanic events just prior to the period of modern observations: in 1640, 1783, 1815 and 1835. A previously unknown event is also postulated for 1699. This tree-ring density parameter is used because it shows a stronger and more consistent short-term, temperature-related volcanic signal than ring width. Normalized density departures following these events vary in sign and magnitude from region to region, with the coldest summer conditions inferred for the Northwest Territories in 1641, Alaska in 1783, Quebec and Labrador in 1816 and the Northwest Territories in 1836. For these as well as other events, low density values are often among the most extreme on record at their respective locations. We suggest that these regional variations in tree growth reflect cooling induced by volcanism and the distribution of cooling influenced by atmospheric circulation patterns.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We compare Northern Hemisphere energy-balance-model temperature calculations to an annual temperature reconstruction based on 20 tree-ring width records from latitudinal and elevational treeline sites in northern North America, Scandinavia, Siberia and Mongolia for the past three centuries. The energy-balance model uses three primary forcings; solar, volcanic, and anthropogenic trace gas and aerosol variations. Several different parameterizations of the forcings are compared. The best agreement (r = 0.8) is found when the annual reconstruction is compared to a version of the model using (1) the Dust Veil Index of Lamb, (2) a solar parameterization which includes the length of the solar cycle, and (3) anthropogenic forcing. The implication is that all three forcings are important in explaining the temperature variations. The general similarity in low-frequency trends between the two independently-derived time series supports the validity of both the model estimates and the tree-ring reconstruction.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Boreal tree-ring records from high latitude North America, Scandinavia and Russia provide baseline data reflecting long-term trends in Arctic annual temperature. Reconstructions from 1682–1968 indicate the latter part and termination of the Little Ice Age and that the northern regions are now warmer by comparison. The resulting high-resolution, extended temperature time series allows examination of underlying causes of climatic change not possible using only the instrumental record. The recent recorded data for the Arctic show recovery from the cooling in the 1950's–1960's. The overall evaluation confirms that the high northern latitudes are now in an anomalously warm state relative to the past three centuries.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-11-13
    Description: Climate conditions in land areas of the Pacific Northwest are strongly influenced by atmosphere/ocean variability, including fluctuations in the Aleutian Low, Pacific-North American (PNA) atmospheric circulation modes, and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It thus seems likely that climatically sensitive tree-ring data from these coastal land areas would likewise reflect such climatic parameters. In this paper, tree-ring width and maximum lakewood density chronologies from northwestern Washington State and near Vancouver Island, British Columbia, are compared to surface air temperature and precipitation from nearby coastal and near-coastal land stations and to monthly sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP) data from the northeast Pacific sector. Results show much promise for eventual reconstruction of these parameters, potentially extending available instrumental records for the northeastern Pacific by several hundred years or more.
    Keywords: Atmospheric Sciences ; Environment ; Oceanography
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-11-25
    Description: Climate modeling using coastal tree-ring chronologies has yielded the first summer temperature reconstructions for coastal stations along the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Northwest. These land temperature reconstructions are strongly correlated with nearby sea surface temperatures, indicating large-scale ocean-atmospheric influences. Significant progress has also been made in modeling winter land temperatures and sea surface temperatures from coastal and shipboard stations. In addition to temperature, the pressure variability center over the central North Pacific Ocean (PAC), which is related to the strength and location of the Aleutian Low pressure system, could be extended using coastal tree rings.
    Keywords: Atmospheric Sciences ; Oceanography
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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