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  • 1
    ISSN: 1871-4528
    Keywords: Solanum tuberosum L. ; prickle pollination ; ploidy level ; flow-cytometry ; adventitious shoots ; in vitro tuber induction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary For the induction and selection of double mutants with altered starch composition, a uniform (homohistont) amylose-free (amf) monoploid as basic plant is of vital importance. Therefore, newamf monoploids had to be developed via prickle pollination. And 26 monoploids were obtained which were screened in vitro for vigour, leaf size and for the percentage of monoploid cells. The number of monoploid cells was underestimated at about 28%. Seven vigorous monoploids were tested in vitro for tuberization capacity, which varied from 0 to 100%. After regeneration in vitro, 0 to 3.7 adventitious shoots per leaf explant were formed. The tuberization capacity of these shoots varied from 0 to 48. Twoamf monoploids were selected which were vigorous and tuberized well in vitro. They are the basis for the application of an in vitro mutation breeding protocol that should lead to the induction and selection of new starch mutants in potato.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1871-4528
    Keywords:
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Among 70017 seeds in progenies of crosses from 23 interdihaploids with aS. phureja clone, homozygous for the seed marker ‘embryo spot’, 2 parthenogenetic monohaploid, 18 dihaploid and 3 tetraploid plants were detected. It is postulated that they have arisen from reduced, unreduced and doubled unreduced unfertilised egg cells.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1871-4528
    Keywords: minitubers ; starch composition ; mutant detection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Small amounts of potato tuber and leaf tissues are extracted in perchloric acid. After staining with I2-KI solution absorbancies at 618 and 550 nm are measured. The amylose/amylopectin ratio can be estimated from the ratio of the absorbancies by using a formula or a graph in which the specific absorptions of the two compounds are introduced. Weighing of samples is not required. The method can be used for the estimation of the starch composition of minitubers and is especially suitable for the detection of mutants with an altered starch composition.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Potato ; Solanum tuberosum ; Phytophthora infestans ; RFLP ; R genes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is the most important fungal pathogen of the potato (Solanum tuberosum). The introduction of major genes for resistance from the wild species S. demissum into potato cultivars is the earliest example of breeding for resistance using wild germplasm in this crop. Eleven resistance alleles (R genes) are known, differing in the recognition of corresponding avirulence alleles of the fungus. The number of R loci, their positions on the genetic map and the allelic relationships between different R variants are not known, except that the R1 locus has been mapped to potato chromosome V The objective of this work was the further genetic analysis of different R alleles in potato. Tetraploid potato cultivars carrying R alleles were reduced to the diploid level by inducing haploid parthenogenetic development of 2n female gametes. Of the 157 isolated primary dihaploids, 7 set seeds and carried the resistance alleles R1, R3 and R10 either individually or in combinations. Independent segregation of the dominant R1 and R3 alleles was demonstrated in two F1 populations of crosses among a dihaploid clone carrying R1 plus R3 and susceptible pollinators. Distorted segregation in favour of susceptibility was found for the R3 allele in 15 of 18 F1 populations analysed, whereas the RI allele segregated with a 1:1 ratio as expected in five F1 populations. The mode of inheritance of the R10 allele could not be deduced as only very few F1 hybrids bearing R10 were obtained. Linkage analysis in two F1 populations between R1, R3 and RFLP markers of known position on the potato RFLP maps confirmed the position of the R1 locus on chromosome V and localized the second locus, R3, to a distal position on chromdsome XI.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: transposon tagging ; potato ; T-DNA IPCR ; RFLP mapping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A general strategy for the isolation of disease resistance genes is presented, employing a two-step approach of transposon targeting near genes of interest followed by transposon tagging. A library of transposon (Ac/Ds) transformants in a self fertile potato diploid are being mapped by deriving genomic DNA probes flanking the transposon containing T-DNA insertions with the inverse polymerase chain reaction and using these probes for RFLP analysis. We have produced a large number of transposon (Ac/Ds) transformants in a self fertile potato diploid. Genomic DNA probes, flanking the transposon containing T-DNA insertions, are produced by the inverse polymerase chain reaction (IPCR) and mapped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in a segragating potato location. A transposon mapped close to a resistance gene can be recombined cis to the gene and used for efficient transposon targeting due to preferential transposition to linked sites.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: Pisum sativum ; nitrate reductase ; mutants ; molybdenum cofactor disturbed
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Two nitrate reductase (NaR)-deficient mutants of pea (Pisum sativum L.), E1 and A300, both disturbed in the molybdenum cofactor function and isolated, respectively, from cv Rondo and cv Juneau, were tested for allelism and were compared in biochemical and growth characteristics. The F1 plants of the cross E1 × A300 possessed NaR and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activities comparable to those of the wild types, indicating that these mutants belong to different complementation groups, representing two different loci. Therefore, mutant E1 represents, besides mutant A300 and the allelic mutants A317 and A334, a third locus governing NaR and is assigned the gene destignation nar 3. In comparison with the wild types, cytochrome c reductase activity was increased in both mutants. The mutants had different cytochrome c reductase distribution patterns, indicating that mutant A300 could be disturbed in the ability to dimerize NaR apoprotein monomers, and mutant E1 in the catalytic function of the molybdenum cofactor. In growth characteristics studied, A300 did not differ from the wild types, whereas fully grown leaves of mutant E1 became necrotic in soil and in liquid media containing nitrate.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Solanum Tuberosum ; Monohaploid potato ; polyploidization ; homozygotization ; gene dosage effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary To study the joint effects of homozygotization and polyploidization in potato, the performance has been examined of five potato genotypes at three (x, 2x, 4x) and two genotypes at two (x, 2x) ploidy levels. Six out of the seven genotypes studied were compared with their heterozygous diploid parental clone. In this way comparisons could be made between i) the heterozygous diploid and its monohaploid derivatives, ii) three or two ploidy levels per genotye and iii) homozygous di- and tetreploids and their heterozygous diploid source. Large variation could be detected between monohaploids obtained from one diploid source. A striking increase in vigour was observed with somatic chromosome doubling from x to 2x, but less clearly from 2x to 4x. The relatively vigorous diploids showed a weaker response to tetraploidization than the less vigorous ones. The heterozygous diploid exceeded all homozygous di- and tetraploid derivatives in performance. The results of this study suggest positive gene dosage effects for tuber production more than for leaf area and plant height. The observations on plant vigour in homo- and heterozygotes suggest that dominance effects are stronger than additive gene effects. Owing to sterility problems, homozygous potato clones will presumably be of little importance for practical breeding.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Agrobacterium rhizogenes ; antisense RNA ; granule-bound starch synthase ; Solanum tuberosum ; starch composition ; transformation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) catalyses the synthesis of amylose in starch granules. Analysis of antisense RNA mediated inhibition of GBSS gene expression in large numbers of tubers from in vitro grown, greenhouse grown and field grown transgenic potato plants revealed stable and total inhibition of GBSS gene expression in one clone. In three other transgenic genotypes partial and unstable inhibition was found. In these genotypes both GBSS activity and amylose content were remarkably reduced compared with the non-transformed control genotype. No relationship was found between the level of inhibition of GBSS gene expression and yield and dry matter content.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: dihaploid potato induction ; pseudogamy ; Solanum tuberosum L.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The production of dihaploids is the first step in a potato breeding program at the diploid level. Dihaploid induction ability, dihaploid production ability and seed parent x pollinator interaction were analyzed for 28 × 3, seed parent x pollinator combinations. This is the first report on significant interaction between seed parents and pollinators. Despite this interaction, IVP 101 had a significantly higher dihaploid induction ability than the widely used pollinators IVP 35 and IVP 48. Previous findings on significant differences in dihaploid production ability between seed parents were clearly confirmed.
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