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  • 1
    Unknown
    Princeton, N. J. : Princeton University Press
    Call number: A12-01-0132
    Pages: XII, 266 S. : Abb. ; 24 cm
    ISBN: 0691001855
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: An instrument is presented which collects large samples of ambient fogwater by impaction of droplets on a screen. The collection efficiency of the instrument is determined as a function of droplet size, and it is shown that fog droplets in the range 3–100-μm diameter are efficiently collected. No significant evaporation or condensation occurs at any stage of the collection process. Field testing indicates that samples collected are representative of the ambient fogwater. The instrument may easily be automated, and is suitable for use in routine air quality monitoring programs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 359 (1992), S. 522-524 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The chemical cycling of inorganic bromine (Brx) in the troposphere is summarized in Fig. 1. The reaction of Br atoms with ozone, followed by the self-reaction of the BrO produced, represents a catalytic loss mechanism for ozone as Br is regenerated. Concentrations of Brx collected on filters during ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Environmental science & technology 18 (1984), S. 827-833 
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Observed correlations between atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and CO represent potentially powerful information for improving CO2 surface flux estimates through coupled CO2-CO inverse analyses. We explore the value of these correlations in improving estimates of regional CO2 fluxes in east Asia by using aircraft observations of CO2 and CO from the TRACE-P campaign over the NW Pacific in March 2001. Our inverse model uses regional CO2 and CO surface fluxes as the state vector, separating biospheric and combustion contributions to CO2. CO2-CO error correlation coefficients are included in the inversion as off-diagonal entries in the a priori and observation error covariance matrices. We derive error correlations in a priori combustion source estimates of CO2 and CO by propagating error estimates of fuel consumption rates and emission factors. However, we find that these correlations are weak because CO source uncertainties are mostly determined by emission factors. Observed correlations between atmospheric CO2 and CO concentrations imply corresponding error correlations in the chemical transport model used as the forward model for the inversion. These error correlations in excess of 0.7, as derived from the TRACE-P data, enable a coupled CO2-CO inversion to achieve significant improvement over a CO2-only inversion for quantifying regional fluxes of CO2.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Format: text
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A major portion of tropospheric photochemistry occurs in the tropics. Deforestation, colonization, and development of tropical rain forest areas could provoke significant changes in emissions of radiatively and photochemically active trace gases. A brief review of studies on trace-gas emissions in pristine and disturbed tropical habitats is followed by an effort to model regional tropospheric chemistry under undisturbed and polluted conditions. Model results suggest that changing emissions could stimulate photochemistry leading to enhanced ozone production and greater mineral acidity in rainfall in colonized agricultural regions. Model results agree with measurements made during the NASA ABLE missions. Under agricultural/pastoral development scenarios, tropical rain forest regions could export greater levels of N2O, CH4, CO, and photochemical precursors of NO y and O3 to the global atmosphere with implications for climatic warming.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: North Pacific ; global atmospheric chemistry ; modeling ; radon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The atmospheric distribution of222Rn over the north Pacific is simulated with a three-dimensional chemical tracer model using meteorological input from the NASA-GISS general circulation model (4°×5° resolution). Radon-222 (half-life 3.8 days) is a tracer of continental air. Model results are in good agreement with measurements from ships and aircraft. Strong Asian influence is found throughout the tropospheric column over the north Pacific in spring, reflecting a combination of frequent convection over the continent, strong westerly winds at altitude, and subsidence over the ocean. In summer, the upper troposphere over the north Pacific is heavily affected by deep convection over China; however, Asian influences at the surface are then at their yearly minimum. In winter, strong Asian influence is found near the surface but not at high altitudes. Transport of American air over the Pacific is important only at low latitudes. American sources account for 11% of total222Rn in the model at Midway, 30% at Mauna Loa and 59% at Oahu. Results for Hawaii indicate two seasonal peaks of American influence, one in summer and one in winter. The tropical western Pacific is particularly remote from continental influences year round.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-26
    Description: Formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured from space provide constraints on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Quantitative interpretation requires characterization of errors in HCHO column retrievals and relating these columns to VOC emissions. Retrieval error is mainly in the air mass factor (AMF) which relates fitted backscattered radiances to vertical columns and requires external information on HCHO, aerosols, and clouds. Here we use aircraft data collected over North America and the Atlantic to determine the local relationships between HCHO columns and VOC emissions, calculate AMFs for HCHO retrievals, assess the errors in deriving AMFs with a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), and draw conclusions regarding space-based mapping of VOC emissions. We show that isoprene drives observed HCHO column variability over North America; HCHO column data from space can thus be used effectively as a proxy for isoprene emission. From observed HCHO and isoprene profiles we find an HCHO molar yield from isoprene oxidation of 1.6 +/- 0.5, consistent with current chemical mechanisms. Clouds are the primary error source in the AMF calculation; errors in the HCHO vertical profile and aerosols have comparatively little effect. The mean bias and 1Q uncertainty in the GEOS-Chem AMF calculation increase from 〈1% and 15% for clear skies to 17% and 24% for half-cloudy scenes. With fitting errors, this gives an overall 1 Q error in HCHO satellite measurements of 25-31%. Retrieval errors, combined with uncertainties in the HCHO yield from isoprene oxidation, result in a 40% (1sigma) error in inferring isoprene emissions from HCHO satellite measurements.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; Volume 111
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: The troposphere is an essential component of the earth's life support system as well as the gateway for the exchange of chemicals between different geochemical reservoirs of the earth. The chemistry of the troposphere is sensitive to perturbation from a wide range of natural phenomena and human activities. The societal concern has been greatly enhanced in recent decades due to ever increasing pressures of population growth and industrialization. Chemical changes within the troposphere control a vast array of processes that impact human health, the biosphere, and climate. A main goal of tropospheric chemistry research is to measure and understand the response of atmospheric composition to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, and to develop the capability to predict future change. Atmospheric chemistry measurements are extremely challenging due to the low concentrations of critical species and the vast scales over which the observations must be made. Available tropospheric data are mainly from surface sites and aircraft missions. Because of the limited temporal extent of aircraft observations, we have very limited information on tropospheric composition above the surface. This situation can be contrasted to the stratosphere, where satellites have provided critical and detailed chemical data on the global distribution of key trace gases.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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