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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1836 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1895 data points
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-02-20
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 189 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 4203 data points
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-02-20
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 115 data points
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 591 data points
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  • 7
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    In:  Supplement to: Jackson, Rebecca; Carlson, Anders E; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Wacker, Lukas; Vogt, Christoph; Kucera, Michal (2017): Asynchronous instability of the North American-Arctic and Greenland ice sheets during the last deglaciation. Quaternary Science Reviews, 164, 140-153, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.03.020
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: The chronology of deglacial meltwater pulses from the Laurentide Ice Sheet is well documented. However, the deglacial history of the North American-Arctic (north-eastern Laurentide and Innuitian) and western Greenland ice sheets draining into the Labrador Sea via Baffin Bay is less well constrained. Here we present new high-resolution, radiocarbon-dated records from the central Baffin Bay spanning ~17 to 10 kyr BP and documenting the full deglacial history of Baffin Bay. Sedimentological and geochemical data confirm the presence of two periods of enhanced detrital carbonate delivery, termed Baffin Bay Detrital Carbonate Events (BBDCs). These events are dated to ~14.2-13.7 kyr BP and ~12.7-11 kyr BP. They are synchronous across Baffin Bay and their mineralogical signature indicates a common source of detrital carbonate from northern Baffin Bay. The first event, BBDC 1, postdates Heinrich Event 1 and the second event, BBDC 0, predates the recently revised timing of Heinrich Event 0. The onset of the BBDC events appears not to be systematically linked to Greenland temperature change as they occur during both interstadial and stadial periods. This indicates that deglaciation of North American-Arctic and western Greenland ice sheets with the associated iceberg and meltwater discharge were decoupled from the dominant North Atlantic climate mode, where iceberg discharge events from the Laurentide Ice Sheet occurred during stadial periods.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 7 datasets
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-28
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 122 (2017): 8246–8262, doi:10.1002/2017JC013026.
    Description: The general issue of katabatic wind-driven exchange in fjords is considered using an idealized numerical model, theory, and observations. Two regimes are identified. For fjords narrower than a viscous boundary layer width, the exchange is limited by a balance between wind and friction in lateral boundary layers. For the nonlinear viscous parameterization used here, this boundary layer thickness depends on the properties of the fjord, such as stratification and length, as well as on the wind stress and numerical parameters such as grid spacing and an empirical constant. For wider fjords typical of east Greenland, the balance is primarily between wind, the along-fjord pressure gradient, and acceleration, in general agreement with previous two-layer nonrotating theories. It is expected that O(10%) of the surface layer will be flushed out of the fjord by a single wind event. Application of the idealized model to a typical katabatic wind event produces outflowing velocities that are in general agreement with observations in Sermilik Fjord, a large glacial fjord in southeast Greenland. The presence of a sill has only a minor influence on the exchange until the sill penetrates over most of the lower layer thickness, in which cases the exchange is reduced. It is concluded that the multiple katabatic wind events per winter that are experienced by the fjords along east Greenland represent an important mechanism of exchange between the fjord and shelf, with implications for the renewal of warm, salty waters at depth and for the export of glacial freshwater in the upper layer.
    Description: National Science Foundation Grant Numbers: OCE-1533170, OCE-1434041, PLR-1418256; NOAA Climate and Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship
    Description: 2018-04-28
    Keywords: Fjords ; Wind forcing
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-11-02
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 46 (2016): 2735-2768, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-15-0134.1.
    Description: In Greenland’s glacial fjords, heat and freshwater are exchanged between glaciers and the ocean. Submarine melting of glaciers has been implicated as a potential trigger for recent glacier acceleration, and observations of ocean heat transport are increasingly being used to infer the submarine melt rates. The complete heat, salt, and mass budgets that underlie such methods, however, have been largely neglected. Here, a new framework for exploring glacial fjord budgets is developed. Building on estuarine studies of salt budgets, the heat, salt, and mass transports through the fjord are decomposed, and new equations for calculating freshwater fluxes from submarine meltwater and runoff are presented. This method is applied to moored records from Sermilik Fjord, near the terminus of Helheim Glacier, to evaluate the dominant balances in the fjord budgets and to estimate freshwater fluxes. Throughout the year, two different regimes are found. In the nonsummer months, advective transports are balanced by changes in heat/salt storage within their ability to measure; freshwater fluxes cannot be inferred as a residual. In the summer, a mean exchange flow emerges, consisting of inflowing Atlantic water and outflowing glacially modified water. This exchange transports heat toward the glacier and is primarily balanced by changes in storage and latent heat for melting ice. The total freshwater flux increases over the summer, reaching 1200 ± 700 m3 s−1 of runoff and 1500 ± 500 m3 s−1 of submarine meltwater from glaciers and icebergs in August. The methods and results highlight important components of fjord budgets, particularly the storage and barotropic terms, that have been not been appropriately considered in previous estimates of submarine melting.
    Description: The data collection and analysis was funded by NSF Grants ARC-0909373, OCE-113008, and OCE-1434041.
    Keywords: Geographic location/entity ; Estuaries ; Glaciers ; Circulation/ Dynamics ; Coastal flows ; Atm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomena ; Freshwater ; Snowmelt/icemelt ; Observational techniques and algorithms ; In situ oceanic observations
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 48 (2018): 2799-2827, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-18-0057.1.
    Description: The fjords that connect Greenland’s glaciers to the ocean are gateways for importing heat to melt ice and for exporting meltwater into the ocean. The transport of heat and meltwater can be modulated by various drivers of fjord circulation, including freshwater, local winds, and shelf variability. Shelf-forced flows (also known as the intermediary circulation) are the dominant mode of variability in two major fjords of east Greenland, but we lack a dynamical understanding of the fjord’s response to shelf forcing. Building on observations from east Greenland, we use numerical simulations and analytical models to explore the dynamics of shelf-driven flows. For the parameter space of Greenlandic fjords, we find that the fjord’s response is primarily a function of three nondimensional parameters: the fjord width over the deformation radius (W/Rd), the forcing time scale over the fjord adjustment time scale, and the forcing amplitude (shelf pycnocline displacements) over the upper-layer thickness. The shelf-forced flows in both the numerical simulations and the observations can largely be explained by a simple analytical model for Kelvin waves propagating around the fjord. For fjords with W/Rd 〉 0.5 (most Greenlandic fjords), 3D dynamics are integral to understanding shelf forcing—the fjord dynamics cannot be approximated with 2D models that neglect cross-fjord structure. The volume flux exchanged between the fjord and shelf increases for narrow fjords and peaks around the resonant forcing frequency, dropping off significantly at higher- and lower-frequency forcing.
    Description: This work was funded by NSF Grant OCE-1536856 and by the NOAA Climate and Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship.
    Keywords: Estuaries ; Glaciers ; Baroclinic flows ; Coastal flows ; Kelvin waves ; Regional models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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