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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: The structural and stratigraphic evolution of rift basins and passive margins has been widely studied, with many analyses demonstrating that delta systems can provide important records of post-rift geodynamic processes. However, the apparent lack of ancient syn-breakup delta systems and the paucity of seismic imaging across continent-ocean boundaries means the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading remains poorly understood. The Early Cretaceous Barrow Group of the North Carnarvon Basin, offshore NW Australia was a major deltaic system that formed during the latter stages of continental rifting, and represents a rich sedimentary archive, documenting uplift, subsidence and erosion of the margin. We use a regional database of 2D and 3D seismic and well data to constrain the internal architecture of the Barrow Group. Our results highlight three major depocenters: the Exmouth and Barrow sub-basins, and southern Exmouth Plateau. Over-compaction of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the South Carnarvon Basin, and pervasive reworking of Permian and Triassic palynomorphs in the offshore Barrow Group, suggests that the onshore South Carnarvon Basin originally contained a thicker sedimentary succession, which was uplifted and eroded prior to breakup. Backstripping of sedimentary successions encountered in wells in the Exmouth Plateau depocenter indicate anomalously rapid tectonic subsidence (≤0.24 mm yr -1 ) accommodated Barrow Group deposition, despite evidence for minimal, contemporaneous upper crustal extension. Our results suggest that classic models of uniform extension cannot account for the observations of uplift and subsidence in the North Carnarvon Basin, and may indicate a period of depth-dependent extension or dynamic topography preceding breakup.
    Print ISSN: 0278-7407
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-9194
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-3670
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0485
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Meteorological Society
    Publication Date: 2016-11-02
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 46 (2016): 2735-2768, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-15-0134.1.
    Description: In Greenland’s glacial fjords, heat and freshwater are exchanged between glaciers and the ocean. Submarine melting of glaciers has been implicated as a potential trigger for recent glacier acceleration, and observations of ocean heat transport are increasingly being used to infer the submarine melt rates. The complete heat, salt, and mass budgets that underlie such methods, however, have been largely neglected. Here, a new framework for exploring glacial fjord budgets is developed. Building on estuarine studies of salt budgets, the heat, salt, and mass transports through the fjord are decomposed, and new equations for calculating freshwater fluxes from submarine meltwater and runoff are presented. This method is applied to moored records from Sermilik Fjord, near the terminus of Helheim Glacier, to evaluate the dominant balances in the fjord budgets and to estimate freshwater fluxes. Throughout the year, two different regimes are found. In the nonsummer months, advective transports are balanced by changes in heat/salt storage within their ability to measure; freshwater fluxes cannot be inferred as a residual. In the summer, a mean exchange flow emerges, consisting of inflowing Atlantic water and outflowing glacially modified water. This exchange transports heat toward the glacier and is primarily balanced by changes in storage and latent heat for melting ice. The total freshwater flux increases over the summer, reaching 1200 ± 700 m3 s−1 of runoff and 1500 ± 500 m3 s−1 of submarine meltwater from glaciers and icebergs in August. The methods and results highlight important components of fjord budgets, particularly the storage and barotropic terms, that have been not been appropriately considered in previous estimates of submarine melting.
    Description: The data collection and analysis was funded by NSF Grants ARC-0909373, OCE-113008, and OCE-1434041.
    Keywords: Geographic location/entity ; Estuaries ; Glaciers ; Circulation/ Dynamics ; Coastal flows ; Atm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomena ; Freshwater ; Snowmelt/icemelt ; Observational techniques and algorithms ; In situ oceanic observations
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 4
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    Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Publication Date: 2016-08-11
    Description: Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution June 2016
    Description: Glacial fjords form conduits between glaciers of the Greenland Ice Sheet and the North Atlantic. They are the gateways for importing oceanic heat to melt ice and for exporting meltwater into the ocean. Submarine melting in fjords has been implicated as a driver of recent glacier acceleration; however, there are no direct measurements of this melting, and little is known about the fjord processes that modulate melt rates. Combining observations, theory, and modeling, this thesis investigates the circulation, heat transport, and meltwater export in glacial fjords. While most recent studies focus on glacial buoyancy forcing, there are other drivers – e.g. tides, local wind, shelf variability – that can be important for fjord circulation. Using moored records from two major Greenlandic fjords, shelf forcing (from shelf density fluctuations) is found to dominate the fjord circulation, driving rapid exchange with the shelf and large heat content variability near the glacier. Contrary to the conventional paradigm, these flows mask any glacier-driven circulation in the non-summer months. During the summer, when shelf forcing is reduced and freshwater forcing peaks, a mean exchange flow transports warm Atlantic-origin water towards the glacier and exports glacial meltwater. Many recent studies have inferred submarine melt rates from oceanic heat transport, but the fjord budgets that underlie this method have been overlooked. Building on estuarine studies of salt fluxes, this thesis presents a new framework for assessing glacial fjord budgets and revised equations for inferring meltwater fluxes. Two different seasonal regimes are found in the heat/salt budgets for Sermilik Fjord, and the results provide the first time-series of submarine meltwater and subglacial discharge fluxes into a glacial fjord. Finally, building on the observations, ROMS numerical simulations and two analytical models are used to investigate the dynamics of shelf-driven flows and their importance relative to local wind forcing across the parameter space of Greenland’s fjords. The fjord response is found to vary primarily with the width relative to the deformation radius and the fjord adjustment timescale relative to the forcing timescale. Understanding these modes of circulation is a step towards accurate modeling of ocean-glacier interactions.
    Description: Funding for this thesis was provided by the National Science Foundation (OCE-1130008, OCE- 1434041 and OPP-909373), WHOI Coastal Ocean Institute, WHOI Ocean Climate Change Institute, and the Kerr Foundation.
    Keywords: Glaciers ; Fjords
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Thesis
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-04-28
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 122 (2017): 8246–8262, doi:10.1002/2017JC013026.
    Description: The general issue of katabatic wind-driven exchange in fjords is considered using an idealized numerical model, theory, and observations. Two regimes are identified. For fjords narrower than a viscous boundary layer width, the exchange is limited by a balance between wind and friction in lateral boundary layers. For the nonlinear viscous parameterization used here, this boundary layer thickness depends on the properties of the fjord, such as stratification and length, as well as on the wind stress and numerical parameters such as grid spacing and an empirical constant. For wider fjords typical of east Greenland, the balance is primarily between wind, the along-fjord pressure gradient, and acceleration, in general agreement with previous two-layer nonrotating theories. It is expected that O(10%) of the surface layer will be flushed out of the fjord by a single wind event. Application of the idealized model to a typical katabatic wind event produces outflowing velocities that are in general agreement with observations in Sermilik Fjord, a large glacial fjord in southeast Greenland. The presence of a sill has only a minor influence on the exchange until the sill penetrates over most of the lower layer thickness, in which cases the exchange is reduced. It is concluded that the multiple katabatic wind events per winter that are experienced by the fjords along east Greenland represent an important mechanism of exchange between the fjord and shelf, with implications for the renewal of warm, salty waters at depth and for the export of glacial freshwater in the upper layer.
    Description: National Science Foundation Grant Numbers: OCE-1533170, OCE-1434041, PLR-1418256; NOAA Climate and Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship
    Description: 2018-04-28
    Keywords: Fjords ; Wind forcing
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1836 data points
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1895 data points
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  • 8
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Oksman, Mimmi; Weckström, Kaarina; Miettinen, Arto; Juggins, Steve; Divine, D V; Jackson, Rebecca; Telford, Richard J; Korsgaard, Niels J; Kucera, Michal (2017): Younger Dryas ice margin retreat triggered by ocean surface warming in central-eastern Baffin Bay. Nature Communications, 8(1), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01155-6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Description: The transition from the last ice age to the present-day interglacial was interrupted by the Younger Dryas (YD) cold period. While many studies exist on this climate event, only few include high-resolution marine records that span the YD. In order to better understand the interactions between ocean, atmosphere and ice sheet stability during the YD, more high-resolution proxy records from the Arctic, located proximal to ice sheet outlet glaciers, are required. Here we present the first diatom-based high-resolution quantitative reconstruction of sea surface conditions from central-eastern Baffin Bay, covering the period 14.0-10.2 kyr BP. Our record reveals warmer sea surface conditions and strong interactions between the ocean and the West Greenland ice margin during the YD. These warmer conditions were caused by increased Atlantic-sourced water inflow combined with amplified seasonality. Our results emphasize the importance of the ocean for ice sheet stability under the current changing climate.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 231 data points
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 4203 data points
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1287 data points
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