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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-01-07
    Description: In this work, we investigated the microstructure evolution of Ag/Cu multilayers and its influences on the hardness and electric resistivity with individual layer thickness ( h ) ranging from 3 to 50 nm. The hardness increases with the decreasing h in the range of 5–20 nm. The barrier to dislocation transmission by stacking faults, twin boundaries, and interfaces leads to hardness enhancement. Simultaneously, in order to get high conductivity, the strong textures in-layers were induced to form for reducing the amount of grain boundaries. The resistivity keeps low even when h decreases to 10 nm. Furthermore, we developed a facile model to evaluate the comprehensive property of Ag/Cu multilayers—the results indicate that the best combination of strength and conductivity occurs when h  = 10 nm.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉Crustal thickening and uplift of southern Tibet have been widely associated with India-Asia continental collision during the Cenozoic. However, recent studies indicated that the crust of the northwestern (NW) Lhasa Terrane was thickened during the late Mesozoic. Here we report geochronological and geochemical data for the Gaerqiong diorite porphyries (GPs) and Xiongma plutons (XPs) in the NW Lhasa terrane, southern Tibet. Zircon U-Pb dating suggests that these intrusive rocks were generated at ca. 85 and ca. 88 Ma, respectively. The GPs are characterized by high MgO, Cr, and Ni contents, and they have adakitic affinities. These geochemical features, combined with their depleted εNd〈sub〉(t)〈/sub〉 (+1.7 to +2.0), 〈sup〉87〈/sup〉Sr/〈sup〉86〈/sup〉Sr〈sub〉(i)〈/sub〉 (0.705103−0.705259), and zircon εHf〈sub〉(t)〈/sub〉 (+5.2 to +10.2) isotopic compositions, indicate that the GPs were produced by partial melting of the delaminated juvenile continental crust. In contrast, the XPs are composed of host granites and mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs). The MMEs have low SiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 and high MgO contents, and low εHf〈sub〉(t)〈/sub〉 (−14.0 to −5.8) values, indicating that their parental magmas were derived from an enriched mantle. The host granites have high SiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 and low MgO contents, and variable εNd〈sub〉(t)〈/sub〉 (−7.4 to −6.3) and zircon εHf〈sub〉(t)〈/sub〉 (−11 to −4.1) values. These observations, combined with the presence of MMEs in the Xiongma granites, suggest that the host granites were the result of mixing of crust- and mantle-derived magmas. Detailed study of these two plutons, combined with the previous researches, suggests that Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma) magmatism in the NW Lhasa Terrane occurred in a post-collisional extensional setting related to delamination of the regionally thickened lithosphere after collision of the Lhasa-Qiangtang Terranes. We propose that the crust of the NW Lhasa Terrane reached a maximum thickness (average of 〉50 km) before the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma). This crustal thickening was caused by underplating of mafic magmas during slab roll-back and break-off of the southward-subducting Bangong-Nujiang oceanic lithosphere and subsequent tectonic thrusting during Qiangtang-Lhasa Terrane collision, respectively. Given that crustal thickening generally results in elevated terrain, the regional uplift (driven by isostasy due to crustal thickening) probably commenced before the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma).〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0016-7606
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈sec〉〈st〉Synopsis〈/st〉〈p〉〈textbox textbox-type="graphic"〉〈p〉〈inline-fig〉〈/inline-fig〉〈/p〉〈/textbox〉〈/p〉 〈p〉As abnormal TGF-β responses are linked to human diseases such as cancer, TGF-β signaling must be tightly regulated. This study uncovers a PTPN3 as regulator of Smurf2 binding to TβRI, a function that is abolished by hepatocarcinoma-associated mutations.〈/p〉 〈p〉 〈l type="unord"〉〈li〉〈p〉PTPN3 potentiates TGF-β signaling independent of its phosphatase activity.〈/p〉〈/li〉 〈li〉〈p〉PTPN3 stabilizes TGF-β type I receptor by inhibiting its interaction with Smurf2.〈/p〉〈/li〉 〈li〉〈p〉L232R mutation associated with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma interferes with the TGF-β activatory and tumor suppressive functions of PTPN3.〈/p〉〈/li〉〈/l〉 〈/p〉〈/sec〉
    Print ISSN: 0261-4189
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2075
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-11-04
    Description: Magnetoresistance (MR) is the magnetic field–induced change of electrical resistance. The MR effect not only has wide applications in hard drivers and sensors but also is a long-standing scientific issue for complex interactions. Ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic oxides generally show negative MR due to the magnetic field–induced spin order. We report the unusually giant positive MR up to 17,200% (at 2 K and 7 T) in 12-nm Sr 2 CrWO 6 thin films, which show metallic behavior with high carrier density of up to 2.26 x 10 28 m –3 and high mobility of 5.66 x 10 4 cm 2 V –1 s –1 . The possible mechanism is that the external magnetic field suppresses the long-range antiferromagnetic order to form short-range antiferromagnetic fluctuations, which enhance electronic scattering and lead to the giant positive MR. The high mobility may also have contributions to the positive MR. These results not only experimentally confirm that the giant positive MR can be realized in oxides but also open up new opportunities for developing and understanding the giant positive MR in oxides.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-09-01
    Description: One of the major risk factors in managing water resources in the South to North Water Transfer Project will be due to spatial and temporal variations in precipitation. This is because the synchronous encounter probability of drought and waterlog can be different at the diversion region and benefited region. This study analyzed the statistical characteristic of drought and waterlog in the diversion region and benefited region and the wetness-dryness encountering probability among the diversion region and benefited region. Besides, the wetness-dryness encountering probability and the surface water resource in the diversion region were also projected based on the outputs of GCMs. The results showed that: (1) The concurrence of drought or waterlog in diversion region and benefited region is uncommon and it benefits the water transfer. (2) In the future, the synchrony of drought/waterlog will increase in wet season while it will decrease in dry season. But the synchrony of drought/wa...
    Print ISSN: 1755-1307
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-1315
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: The Gene Expression Database (GXD; www.informatics.jax.org/expression.shtml ) is an extensive and well-curated community resource of mouse developmental expression information. Through curation of the scientific literature and by collaborations with large-scale expression projects, GXD collects and integrates data from RNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, northern blot and western blot experiments. Expression data from both wild-type and mutant mice are included. The expression data are combined with genetic and phenotypic data in Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and made readily accessible to many types of database searches. At present, GXD includes over 1.5 million expression results and more than 300 000 images, all annotated with detailed and standardized metadata. Since our last report in 2014, we have added a large amount of data, we have enhanced data and database infrastructure, and we have implemented many new search and display features. Interface enhancements include: a new Mouse Developmental Anatomy Browser; interactive tissue-by-developmental stage and tissue-by-gene matrix views; capabilities to filter and sort expression data summaries; a batch search utility; gene-based expression overviews; and links to expression data from other species.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-07-22
    Description: The mesoporous perovskite morphologies and optical and electronic properties are influenced by many parameters with which the device performance could be affected. Firstly, the working temperature can be mentioned. Secondly the substrate temperature which combined with spin coated speed could permit to load perovskite inside the mesoporous independent to working temperature. And other factor as the methyl ammonium iodide (CH 3 NH 3 I) solution concentration could be temperature dependent on the lead iodide, means the reaction is most probable done when the concentration increase with the increasing temperature, whereas the reaction between lead iodide and methyl ammonium can be decrease with lead iodide thickness. It is most probable that the solution concentration also has a significant effect on the morphology of the perovskite that is confined in the pores of the mesoporous TiO 2 . It is most probable also the spin coating speed has added at this de...
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-10-18
    Description: Dexamethasone shifts bone marrow stromal cells from osteoblasts to adipocytes by C/EBPalpha promoter methylation Cell Death and Disease 4, e832 (October 2013). doi:10.1038/cddis.2013.348 Authors: J Li, N Zhang, X Huang, J Xu, J C Fernandes, K Dai & X Zhang
    Keywords: osteoporosisBMSC differentiationWnt/beta-cateninC/EBPalphaDNA methylation
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-11-01
    Description: It is generally believed that the Tibetan Plateau is the result of crustal thickening in response to the collision of the Asian and Indian plates. However, the specific timing and uplift mechanism remain controversial. The widespread occurrence of Cenozoic lavas in the northern Qiangtang terrane provides a unique opportunity to constrain the dynamic processes that resulted in uplift of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Eocene lavas from the northern Qiangtang terrane display adakitic geochemical characteristics, such as high SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 contents, low Y and Yb contents, positive Sr anomalies, and high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, in combination with high Mg# (43–69) and negative anomalies for Nb and Ta, which suggest a garnet + rutile-in and plagioclase-free source residue. The same samples also have high K 2 O and Th contents, high Th/Ce ratios, and low Nb/U, Ce/Pb, Ti/Eu, and Nd/Sm ratios, as well as high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (i) (0.7062–0.7075) and low Nd(t) (–6.3 to –2.9), which show a clear continental crust affinity. These high-Mg# adakitic rocks, combined with other characteristics of Tibetan Cenozoic lavas, indicate that they were derived from partial melting of delaminated lower continental crust, which subsequently reacted with surrounding mantle peridotites during ascent to crustal depths. The Eocene high-Mg# adakitic rocks (46–38 Ma), north-south–trending shoshonitic dikes (47–38 Ma), and contemporaneous mantle-derived Mg-rich potassic and shoshonitic lavas indicate that the thickness of the crust was at least 50 km before ca. 46 Ma, at which time rapid uplift and extension occurred, most likely caused by small-scale delamination of the lithospheric mantle at 46–38 Ma (Eocene) in central Tibet.
    Print ISSN: 0016-7606
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-11-19
    Description: By using a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) with laser heating technology, a cubic perovskite polymorph of SrSiO 3 has been synthesized at ~38 GPa and 1500–2000 K for the first time. The P - V data of this new phase give ambient temperate elastic constants of V 0 = 49.18(5) Å 3 , K 0 = 211(3) GPa, respectively, when they are fitted against the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with a fixed K 0 ' at 4. On decompression, the SrSiO 3 cubic perovskite phase becomes unstable at ~6.2 GPa and disappears completely at ~4.7 GPa. The transformed product can be considered as an amorphous phase with a minor amount of small sized crystals in the amorphous matrix. First principle calculations predicted structural properties of both the cubic and the six-layer-repeated hexagonal perovskite polymorphs of SrSiO 3 in good agreement with experimental results. The experimental and theoretical results indicate that the larger Sr 2+ cation can substitute the Ca 2+ cation and enter into the lattice of the cubic perovskite phase of CaSiO 3 at lower mantle conditions with only a small lattice strain. These results indicate that Sr can be hosted in cubic perovskite CaSiO 3 found as inclusions in diamonds originating from the lower mantle.
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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