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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Species extinctions have defined the global biodiversity crisis, but extinction begins with loss in abundance of individuals that can result in compositional and functional changes of ecosystems. Using multiple and independent monitoring networks, we report population losses across much of the North American avifauna over 48 years, including once common species and from most biomes. Integration of range-wide population trajectories and size estimates indicates a net loss approaching 3 billion birds, or 29% of 1970 abundance. A continent-wide weather radar network also reveals a similarly steep decline in biomass passage of migrating birds over a recent 10-year period. This loss of bird abundance signals an urgent need to address threats to avert future avifaunal collapse and associated loss of ecosystem integrity, function and services.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Species extinctions have defined the global biodiversity crisis, but extinction begins with loss in abundance of individuals that can result in compositional and functional changes of ecosystems. Using multiple and independent monitoring networks, we report population losses across much of the North American avifauna over 48 years, including once-common species and from most biomes. Integration of range-wide population trajectories and size estimates indicates a net loss approaching 3 billion birds, or 29% of 1970 abundance. A continent-wide weather radar network also reveals a similarly steep decline in biomass passage of migrating birds over a recent 10-year period. This loss of bird abundance signals an urgent need to address threats to avert future avifaunal collapse and associated loss of ecosystem integrity, function, and services.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: The Midwestern US is dominated by corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production, and the carbon dynamics of this region are dominated by these production systems. An accurate regional estimate of gross primary production (GPP) is imperative and requires upscaling approaches. The aim of this study was to upscale corn and soybean GPP (referred to as GPPcalc) in four counties in Central Iowa in the 2016 growing season (DOY 145–269). Eight eddy-covariance (EC) stations recorded carbon dioxide fluxes of corn (n = 4) and soybean (n = 4), and net ecosystem production (NEP) was partitioned into GPP and ecosystem respiration (RE). Additional field-measured NDVI was used to calculate radiation use efficiency (RUEmax). GPPcalc was calculated using 16 MODIS satellite images, ground-based RUEmax and meteorological data, and improved land use maps. Seasonal NEP, GPP, and RE ( x ¯ ± SE) were 678 ± 63, 1483 ± 100, and −805 ± 40 g C m−2 for corn, and 263 ± 40, 811 ± 53, and −548 ± 14 g C m−2 for soybean, respectively. Field-measured NDVI aligned well with MODIS fPAR (R2 = 0.99), and the calculated RUEmax was 3.24 and 1.90 g C MJ−1 for corn and soybean, respectively. The GPPcalc vs. EC-derived GPP had a RMSE of 2.24 and 2.81 g C m−2 d−1, for corn and soybean, respectively, which is an improvement to the GPPMODIS product (2.44 and 3.30 g C m−2 d−1, respectively). Corn yield, calculated from GPPcalc (12.82 ± 0.65 Mg ha−1), corresponded well to official yield data (13.09 ± 0.09 Mg ha−1), while soybean yield was overestimated (6.73 ± 0.27 vs. 4.03 ± 0.04 Mg ha−1). The approach presented has the potential to increase the accuracy of regional corn and soybean GPP and grain yield estimates by integrating field-based flux estimates with remote sensing reflectance observations and high-resolution land use maps.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by MDPI
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Targeted, temporally regulated neural modulation is invaluable in determining the physiological roles of specific neural populations or circuits. Here we describe a system for non-invasive, temporal activation or inhibition of neuronal activity in vivo and its use to study central nervous system control of glucose homeostasis and feeding in mice. We are able to induce neuronal activation remotely using radio waves or magnetic fields via Cre-dependent expression of a GFP-tagged ferritin fusion protein tethered to the cation-conducting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by a camelid anti-GFP antibody (anti-GFP-TRPV1). Neuronal inhibition via the same stimuli is achieved by mutating the TRPV1 pore, rendering the channel chloride-permeable. These constructs were targeted to glucose-sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus in glucokinase-Cre mice, which express Cre in glucose-sensing neurons. Acute activation of glucose-sensing neurons in this region increases plasma glucose and glucagon, lowers insulin levels and stimulates feeding, while inhibition reduces blood glucose, raises insulin levels and suppresses feeding. These results suggest that pancreatic hormones function as an effector mechanism of central nervous system circuits controlling blood glucose and behaviour. The method we employ obviates the need for permanent implants and could potentially be applied to study other neural processes or used to regulate other, even dispersed, cell types.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stanley, Sarah A -- Kelly, Leah -- Latcha, Kaamashri N -- Schmidt, Sarah F -- Yu, Xiaofei -- Nectow, Alexander R -- Sauer, Jeremy -- Dyke, Jonathan P -- Dordick, Jonathan S -- Friedman, Jeffrey M -- GM067545/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM095654/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MH105941/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH105941/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):647-50. doi: 10.1038/nature17183. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Chemical &Biological Engineering, Center for Biotechnology &Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180, USA. ; Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007848" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood Glucose/*metabolism ; Eating/*physiology ; Ferritins/genetics/metabolism ; Glucagon/blood ; Glucokinase/metabolism ; Homeostasis ; Hypoglycemia/metabolism ; Insulin/blood ; Integrases/metabolism ; *Magnetic Fields ; Mice ; Neural Inhibition ; Neurons/*physiology ; Pancreatic Hormones/metabolism ; *Radio Waves ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; TRPV Cation Channels/genetics/metabolism ; Time Factors ; Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus/*cytology/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-11-02
    Description: Palivizumab was the first antiviral monoclonal antibody (mAb) approved for therapeutic use in humans, and remains a prophylactic treatment for infants at risk for severe disease because of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Palivizumab is an engineered humanized version of a murine mAb targeting antigenic site II of the RSV fusion...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: RNP granules are ribonucleoprotein assemblies that regulate the post-transcriptional fate of mRNAs in all eukaryotes. Their exact function remains poorly understood, one reason for this is that RNP granule purification has not yet been achieved. We have exploited a unique feature of trypanosomes to prepare a cellular fraction highly enriched in starvation stress granules. First, granules remain trapped within the cage-like, subpellicular microtubule array of the trypanosome cytoskeleton while soluble proteins are washed away. Second, the microtubules are depolymerized and the granules are released. RNA sequencing combined with single molecule mRNA FISH identified the short and highly abundant mRNAs encoding ribosomal mRNAs as being excluded from granules. By mass spectrometry we have identified 463 stress granule candidate proteins. For 17/49 proteins tested by eYFP tagging we have confirmed the localization to granules, including one phosphatase, one methyltransferase and two proteins with a function in trypanosome life-cycle regulation. The novel method presented here enables the unbiased identification of novel RNP granule components, paving the way towards an understanding of RNP granule function.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-06-29
    Description: The Journal of Physical Chemistry B DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b04228
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5207
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Author(s): W. Unterberger, T. J. Lerotholi, E. A. Kröger, M. J. Knight, D. A. Duncan, D. Kreikemeyer-Lorenzo, K. A. Hogan, D. C. Jackson, R. Włodarczyk, M. Sierka, J. Sauer, and D. P. Woodruff The local structure of the hydroxyl species on the rutile TiO 2 (110) surface has been determined both experimentally and computationally. The experimental study exploited chemical state–specific O 1s scanned-energy mode photoelectron diffraction from a surface exposed to atomic hydrogen, while densit... [Phys. Rev. B 84, 115461] Published Wed Sep 28, 2011
    Keywords: Surface physics, nanoscale physics, low-dimensional systems
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-21
    Description: Global climate change (GCC) significantly affects distributional patterns of organisms, and considerable impacts on biodiversity are predicted for the next decades. Inferred effects include large-scale range shifts towards higher altitudes and latitudes, facilitation of biological invasions and species extinctions. Alterations of biotic patterns caused by GCC have usually been predicted on the scale of taxonomically recognized morphospecies. However, the effects of climate change at the most fundamental level of biodiversity - intraspecific genetic diversity - remain elusive. Here we show that the use of morphospecies-based assessments of GCC effects will result in underestimations of the true scale of biodiversity loss. Species distribution modelling and assessments of mitochondrial DNA variability in nine montane aquatic insect species in Europe indicate that future range contractions will be accompanied by severe losses of cryptic evolutionary lineages and genetic diversity within these lineages. These losses greatly exceed those at the scale of morphospecies. We also document that the extent of range reduction may be a useful proxy when predicting losses of genetic diversity. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific patterns of genetic diversity should be considered when estimating the effects of climate change on biodiversity.
    Print ISSN: 1758-678X
    Electronic ISSN: 1758-6798
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-04-10
    Description: Roberts, M. J., Downey, N. J., and Sauer, W. H. 2012. The relative importance of shallow and deep shelf spawning habitats for the South African chokka squid ( Loligo reynaudii ). – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 563–571. It is well known that the spawning grounds of chokka squid Loligo reynaudii lie along the shallow inshore regions of South Africa's south coast. However, egg masses have been found in deeper water on the Agulhas Bank, and hydroacoustic targets deemed to be large aggregations of spawning squid have been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent, depth range, and importance of deep spawning. Trawl data collected during demersal research surveys between Port Nolloth on the west and Port Alfred on the south coast were examined for egg capsules. No spawning was found on the west coast. Data showed that chokka squid preferred the eastern Agulhas Bank for spawning. Spawning occurred not only inshore but also on the mid-shelf extending to depths of 270 m near the shelf edge. Squid egg biomass markedly decreased beyond 70 m, suggesting delineation between the inshore and offshore spawning grounds. Total egg biomass calculations for depths shallower and deeper than 70 m indicated the coastal area to be strongly favoured, i.e. 82 vs. 18%. These results contest the commonly accepted notion that L. reynaudii is an inshore spawner and redefine the spawning grounds to extend across the shelf.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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