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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-07-26
    Description: In 2001, a rare swarm of small, shallow earthquakes beneath the city of Spokane, Washington, caused ground shaking as well as audible booms over a five-month period. Subsequent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data analysis revealed an area of surface uplift in the vicinity of the earthquake swarm. To investigate the potential faults that may have caused both the earthquakes and the topographic uplift, we collected ~3 km of high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles to image the upper-source region of the swarm. The two profiles reveal a complex deformational pattern within Quaternary alluvial, fluvial, and flood deposits, underlain by Tertiary basalts and basin sediments. At least 100 m of arching on a basalt surface in the upper 500 m is interpreted from both the seismic profiles and magnetic modeling. Two west-dipping faults deform Quaternary sediments and project to the surface near the location of the Spokane fault defined from modeling of the InSAR data.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 2
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    In:  Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Bonn, Pergamon, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 986-987, pp. 1990, (ISBN: 0534351875, 2nd edition)
    Publication Date: 2003
    Keywords: Seismology ; Shear waves ; Velocity ; Velocity depth profile ; USA ; BSSA
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  • 3
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    In:  Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., Bonn, Pergamon, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 986-997, pp. 1990, (ISBN: 0534351875, 2nd edition)
    Publication Date: 2003
    Keywords: Layers ; Shear waves ; Seismics (controlled source seismology) ; Velocity depth profile ; Physical properties of rocks ; USA ; noksp ; BSSA
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  • 4
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    In:  Eos, Trans., Am. Geophys. Un., Würzburg, Pergamon, vol. 73, no. 44, pp. 473-476, pp. B05S01, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1992
    Keywords: Seismics (controlled source seismology) ; Earthquake hazard
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-04-01
    Description: We conducted active and passive seismic imaging investigations along a 5.6-km-long, east–west transect ending at the mapped trace of the Wasatch fault in southern Utah Valley. Using two-dimensional (2D) P-wave seismic reflection data, we imaged basin deformation and faulting to a depth of 1.4 km and developed a detailed interval velocity model for prestack depth migration and 2D ground-motion simulations. Passive-source microtremor data acquired at two sites along the seismic reflection transect resolve S-wave velocities of approximately 200??m/s at the surface to about 900??m/s at 160 m depth and confirm a substantial thickening of low-velocity material westward into the valley. From the P-wave reflection profile, we interpret shallow (100–600 m) bedrock deformation extending from the surface trace of the Wasatch fault to roughly 1.5 km west into the valley. The bedrock deformation is caused by multiple interpreted fault splays displacing fault blocks downward to the west of the range front. Further west in the valley, the P-wave data reveal subhorizontal horizons from approximately 90 to 900 m depth that vary in thickness and whose dip increases with depth eastward toward the Wasatch fault. Another inferred fault about 4 km west of the mapped Wasatch fault displaces horizons within the valley to as shallow as 100 m depth. The overall deformational pattern imaged in our data is consistent with the Wasatch fault migrating eastward through time and with the abandonment of earlier synextensional faults, as part of the evolution of an inferred 20-km-wide half-graben structure within Utah Valley. Finite-difference 2D modeling suggests the imaged subsurface basin geometry can cause fourfold variation in peak ground velocity over distances of 300 m.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 385 (1997), S. 494-494 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Arnold et all recently reported that a range of chemicals could act synergistically to bind and activate the human oestrogen receptor (hER) in vitro. Most markedly, a 1:1 mixture of the insecticides dieldrin and endosulfan produced a 1,000-fold higher activity than when present alone. Arnold et ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-10-08
    Description: Gravity and magnetic anomalies suggest that the Olympia structure beneath the southern Puget Lowland (western Washington State, U.S.) vertically displaces Eocene Crescent Formation strata. Northeast of the Olympia structure, middle Eocene Crescent Formation is beneath 4–6 km of Paleogene–Neogene and Quaternary strata of the Tacoma basin, whereas the Crescent Formation is exposed at the surface immediately to the south. Although numerous marine seismic reflection profiles have been acquired near the surface location of the Olympia structure as defined by potential field anomalies, its tectonic character remains enigmatic, in part because inlets of southern Puget Sound are too shallow for the collection of deep-penetration marine seismic profiles across the geophysical anomalies. To supplement existing shallow-marine data near the structure, we acquired 14.6 km of land-based seismic reflection data along a profile that extends from Crescent Formation exposed in the Black Hills northward across the projected surface location of the Olympia structure. The reflection seismic data image the Crescent bedrock surface to ~1 km depth beneath the southern Tacoma basin and reveal the dip on this surface to be no greater than ~10°. Although regional potential field data show a strong linear trend for the Olympia structure that implies folding over a blind thrust and/or bedrock juxtaposed against a weakly to nonmagnetic sediment section, high-resolution magnetic anomaly analysis along the land-based profile suggests that the structure is more complex. Overall, seismic and potential-field profiles presented in this study identify only minor shallow faulting within the projected surface location of the Olympia structure. We suggest that the mapped trace of the Olympia structure along the northern flank of the Black Hills, at least within the study area, is constrained by juxtaposed normal and reversely magnetized Crescent Formation units and minor tectonic deformation of Crescent Formation bedrock.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-040X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-11-04
    Description: We collected new high-resolution P -wave seismic-reflection data to explore for possible faults beneath a roughly linear cluster of early to mid-Holocene earthquake-induced sand blows to the south of Marianna, Arkansas. The Daytona Beach sand blow deposits are located in east-central Arkansas about 75 km southwest of Memphis, Tennessee, and about 80 km south of the southwestern end of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). Previous studies of these sand blows indicate that they were produced between 10,500 and 5350 yr B.P. (before A.D. 1950). The sand blows are large and similar in size to those in the heart of the NMSZ produced by the 1811–1812 earthquakes. The seismic-reflection profiles reveal a previously unknown zone of near-vertical faults imaged in the 100–1100-m depth range that are approximately coincident with a cluster of earthquake-induced sand blows and a near-linear surface lineament composed of air photo tonal anomalies. These interpreted faults are expressed as vertical discontinuities with the largest displacement fault showing about 40 m of west-side-up displacement at the top of the Paleozoic section at about 1100 m depth. There are about 20 m of folding on reflections within the Eocene strata at 400 m depth. Increasing fault displacement with depth suggests long-term recurrent faulting. The imaged faults within the vicinity of the numerous sand blow features could be a causative earthquake source, although it does not rule out the possibility of other seismic sources nearby. These newly located faults add to a growing list of potentially active Pleistocene–Holocene faults discovered over the last two decades that are within the Mississippi embayment region but outside of the historical NMSZ.
    Print ISSN: 0895-0695
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-2057
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-07-26
    Description: Although the time-averaged shear-wave velocity down to 30 m depth ( V S 30 ) can be a proxy for estimating earthquake ground-motion amplification, significant controversy exists about its limitations when used as a single parameter for the prediction of amplification. To examine this question in absence of relevant strong-motion records, we use a range of different methods to measure the shear-wave velocity profiles and the resulting theoretical site amplification factors (AFs) for 30 sites in the Newcastle area, Australia, in a series of blind comparison studies. The multimethod approach used here combines past seismic cone penetrometer and spectral analysis of surface-wave data, with newly acquired horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio, passive-source surface-wave spatial autocorrelation (SPAC), refraction microtremor (ReMi), and multichannel analysis of surface-wave data. The various measurement techniques predicted a range of different AFs. The SPAC and ReMi techniques have the smallest overall deviation from the median AF for the majority of sites. We show that V S 30 can be related to spectral response above a period T of 0.5 s but not necessarily with the maximum amplification according to the modeling done based on the measured shear-wave velocity profiles. Both V S 30 and AF values are influenced by the velocity ratio between bedrock and overlying sediments and the presence of surficial thin low-velocity layers (〈2 m thick and 〈150 m/s), but the velocity ratio is what mostly affects the AF. At 0.2〈 T 〈0.4 s, the AFs are largely controlled by the surficial geology of a particular site. AF maxima are the highest in the hard classes, which is the inverse of the findings used in the Australian Building Code. Only for T 〉0.5 s do the amplification curves consistently show higher values for soft site classes and lower for hard classes.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-12-02
    Description: Near-surface thrust fault splays and antithetic backthrusts at the tips of major thrust fault systems can distribute slip across multiple shallow fault strands, complicating earthquake hazard analyses based on studies of surface faulting. The shallow expression of the fault strands forming the Seattle fault zone of Washington State shows the structural relationships and interactions between such fault strands. Paleoseismic studies document an ~7000 yr history of earthquakes on multiple faults within the Seattle fault zone, with some backthrusts inferred to rupture in small (M ~5.5–6.0) earthquakes at times other than during earthquakes on the main thrust faults. We interpret seismic-reflection profiles to show three main thrust faults, one of which is a blind thrust fault directly beneath downtown Seattle, and four small backthrusts within the Seattle fault zone. We then model fault slip, constrained by shallow deformation, to show that the Seattle fault forms a fault propagation fold rather than the alternatively proposed roof thrust system. Fault slip modeling shows that back-thrust ruptures driven by moderate (M ~6.5–6.7) earthquakes on the main thrust faults are consistent with the paleoseismic data. The results indicate that paleoseismic data from the back-thrust ruptures reveal the times of moderate earthquakes on the main fault system, rather than indicating smaller (M ~5.5–6.0) earthquakes involving only the backthrusts. Estimates of cumulative shortening during known Seattle fault zone earthquakes support the inference that the Seattle fault has been the major seismic hazard in the northern Cascadia forearc in the late Holocene.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-040X
    Topics: Geosciences
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