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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-05-19
    Description: Rare genetic variants contribute to complex disease risk; however, the abundance of rare variants in human populations remains unknown. We explored this spectrum of variation by sequencing 202 genes encoding drug targets in 14,002 individuals. We find rare variants are abundant (1 every 17 bases) and geographically localized, so that even with large sample sizes, rare variant catalogs will be largely incomplete. We used the observed patterns of variation to estimate population growth parameters, the proportion of variants in a given frequency class that are putatively deleterious, and mutation rates for each gene. We conclude that because of rapid population growth and weak purifying selection, human populations harbor an abundance of rare variants, many of which are deleterious and have relevance to understanding disease risk.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319976/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319976/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nelson, Matthew R -- Wegmann, Daniel -- Ehm, Margaret G -- Kessner, Darren -- St Jean, Pamela -- Verzilli, Claudio -- Shen, Judong -- Tang, Zhengzheng -- Bacanu, Silviu-Alin -- Fraser, Dana -- Warren, Liling -- Aponte, Jennifer -- Zawistowski, Matthew -- Liu, Xiao -- Zhang, Hao -- Zhang, Yong -- Li, Jun -- Li, Yun -- Li, Li -- Woollard, Peter -- Topp, Simon -- Hall, Matthew D -- Nangle, Keith -- Wang, Jun -- Abecasis, Goncalo -- Cardon, Lon R -- Zollner, Sebastian -- Whittaker, John C -- Chissoe, Stephanie L -- Novembre, John -- Mooser, Vincent -- T32 HG002536/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jul 6;337(6090):100-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1217876. Epub 2012 May 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA. matthew.r.nelson@gsk.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22604722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: African Americans/genetics ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group ; Disease/*genetics ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Gene Frequency ; Genetic Association Studies ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; *Genetic Variation ; *Genome, Human ; Geography ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Humans ; Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Multifactorial Inheritance ; Mutation Rate ; Pharmacogenetics ; Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Population Growth ; Sample Size ; Selection, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-01-28
    Description: Ancient genomic sequences have started to reveal the origin and the demographic impact of farmers from the Neolithic period spreading into Europe. The adoption of farming, stock breeding and sedentary societies during the Neolithic may have resulted in adaptive changes in genes associated with immunity and diet. However, the limited data available from earlier hunter-gatherers preclude an understanding of the selective processes associated with this crucial transition to agriculture in recent human evolution. Here we sequence an approximately 7,000-year-old Mesolithic skeleton discovered at the La Brana-Arintero site in Leon, Spain, to retrieve a complete pre-agricultural European human genome. Analysis of this genome in the context of other ancient samples suggests the existence of a common ancient genomic signature across western and central Eurasia from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic. The La Brana individual carries ancestral alleles in several skin pigmentation genes, suggesting that the light skin of modern Europeans was not yet ubiquitous in Mesolithic times. Moreover, we provide evidence that a significant number of derived, putatively adaptive variants associated with pathogen resistance in modern Europeans were already present in this hunter-gatherer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4269527/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4269527/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Olalde, Inigo -- Allentoft, Morten E -- Sanchez-Quinto, Federico -- Santpere, Gabriel -- Chiang, Charleston W K -- DeGiorgio, Michael -- Prado-Martinez, Javier -- Rodriguez, Juan Antonio -- Rasmussen, Simon -- Quilez, Javier -- Ramirez, Oscar -- Marigorta, Urko M -- Fernandez-Callejo, Marcos -- Prada, Maria Encina -- Encinas, Julio Manuel Vidal -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Netea, Mihai G -- Novembre, John -- Sturm, Richard A -- Sabeti, Pardis -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Navarro, Arcadi -- Willerslev, Eske -- Lalueza-Fox, Carles -- F32 GM106656/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- F32GM106656/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007089/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01-HG007089/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 13;507(7491):225-8. doi: 10.1038/nature12960. Epub 2014 Jan 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, CSIC-UPF, Barcelona 08003, Spain [2]. ; 1] Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark [2]. ; Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, CSIC-UPF, Barcelona 08003, Spain. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, 502 Wartik Laboratory, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark. ; I.E.S.O. 'Los Salados', Junta de Castilla y Leon, E-49600 Benavente, Spain. ; Junta de Castilla y Leon, Servicio de Cultura de Leon, E-24071 Leon, Spain. ; Center for Theoretical Evolutionary Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Department of Medicine and Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6500 Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Melanogenix Group, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; 1] Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, CSIC-UPF, Barcelona 08003, Spain [2] Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ; 1] Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, CSIC-UPF, Barcelona 08003, Spain [2] Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain [3] Centre de Regulacio Genomica (CRG), Barcelona 08003, Catalonia, Spain [4] National Institute for Bioinformatics (INB), Barcelona 08003, Catalonia, Spain. ; Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24463515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/history ; *Alleles ; Biological Evolution ; Caves ; European Continental Ancestry Group/*genetics ; Eye Color/genetics ; *Fossils ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genomics ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Immunity/*genetics ; Lactose Intolerance/genetics ; Male ; Pigmentation/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Principal Component Analysis ; Skeleton ; Skin Pigmentation/genetics ; Spain/ethnology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-06-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Novembre, John -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jun 11;522(7555):164-5. doi: 10.1038/522164a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062506" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Asian Continental Ancestry Group/*genetics ; Cultural Evolution/*history ; European Continental Ancestry Group/*genetics ; *Fossils ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; *Genomics ; *Grassland ; Human Migration/*history ; Humans ; Language/*history ; Male
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2008-09-02
    Description: Understanding the genetic structure of human populations is of fundamental interest to medical, forensic and anthropological sciences. Advances in high-throughput genotyping technology have markedly improved our understanding of global patterns of human genetic variation and suggest the potential to use large samples to uncover variation among closely spaced populations. Here we characterize genetic variation in a sample of 3,000 European individuals genotyped at over half a million variable DNA sites in the human genome. Despite low average levels of genetic differentiation among Europeans, we find a close correspondence between genetic and geographic distances; indeed, a geographical map of Europe arises naturally as an efficient two-dimensional summary of genetic variation in Europeans. The results emphasize that when mapping the genetic basis of a disease phenotype, spurious associations can arise if genetic structure is not properly accounted for. In addition, the results are relevant to the prospects of genetic ancestry testing; an individual's DNA can be used to infer their geographic origin with surprising accuracy-often to within a few hundred kilometres.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735096/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735096/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Novembre, John -- Johnson, Toby -- Bryc, Katarzyna -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Boyko, Adam R -- Auton, Adam -- Indap, Amit -- King, Karen S -- Bergmann, Sven -- Nelson, Matthew R -- Stephens, Matthew -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- R01 GM083606/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083606-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083606-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Nov 6;456(7218):98-101. doi: 10.1038/nature07331. Epub 2008 Aug 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Interdepartmental Program in Bioinformatics, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. jnovembre@ucla.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18758442" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Emigration and Immigration ; Europe/ethnology ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; *Genetics, Population ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genotype ; *Geography ; Humans ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Principal Component Analysis ; Quantitative Trait, Heritable ; Sample Size
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2010-03-20
    Description: Advances in genome technology have facilitated a new understanding of the historical and genetic processes crucial to rapid phenotypic evolution under domestication. To understand the process of dog diversification better, we conducted an extensive genome-wide survey of more than 48,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in dogs and their wild progenitor, the grey wolf. Here we show that dog breeds share a higher proportion of multi-locus haplotypes unique to grey wolves from the Middle East, indicating that they are a dominant source of genetic diversity for dogs rather than wolves from east Asia, as suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Furthermore, we find a surprising correspondence between genetic and phenotypic/functional breed groupings but there are exceptions that suggest phenotypic diversification depended in part on the repeated crossing of individuals with novel phenotypes. Our results show that Middle Eastern wolves were a critical source of genome diversity, although interbreeding with local wolf populations clearly occurred elsewhere in the early history of specific lineages. More recently, the evolution of modern dog breeds seems to have been an iterative process that drew on a limited genetic toolkit to create remarkable phenotypic diversity.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3494089/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3494089/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vonholdt, Bridgett M -- Pollinger, John P -- Lohmueller, Kirk E -- Han, Eunjung -- Parker, Heidi G -- Quignon, Pascale -- Degenhardt, Jeremiah D -- Boyko, Adam R -- Earl, Dent A -- Auton, Adam -- Reynolds, Andy -- Bryc, Kasia -- Brisbin, Abra -- Knowles, James C -- Mosher, Dana S -- Spady, Tyrone C -- Elkahloun, Abdel -- Geffen, Eli -- Pilot, Malgorzata -- Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz -- Greco, Claudia -- Randi, Ettore -- Bannasch, Danika -- Wilton, Alan -- Shearman, Jeremy -- Musiani, Marco -- Cargill, Michelle -- Jones, Paul G -- Qian, Zuwei -- Huang, Wei -- Ding, Zhao-Li -- Zhang, Ya-Ping -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Ostrander, Elaine A -- Novembre, John -- Wayne, Robert K -- R01 GM083606/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083606-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- ZIC HG200365-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIC HG200365-02/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIC HG200365-03/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Apr 8;464(7290):898-902. doi: 10.1038/nature08837. Epub 2010 Mar 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 621 Charles E. Young Drive South, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20237475" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Domestic/classification/*genetics ; Animals, Wild/classification/genetics ; Breeding ; Computational Biology ; Dogs/classification/*genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Far East/ethnology ; Genome/*genetics ; Haplotypes/*genetics ; Middle East/ethnology ; Phenotype ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics ; Wolves/classification/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-02-20
    Description: : forqs is a forward-in-time simulation of recombination, quantitative traits and selection. It was designed to investigate haplotype patterns resulting from scenarios where substantial evolutionary change has taken place in a small number of generations due to recombination and/or selection on polygenic quantitative traits. Availability and implementation : forqs is implemented as a command-line C++ program. Source code and binary executables for Linux, OSX and Windows are freely available under a permissive BSD license: https://bitbucket.org/dkessner/forqs . Contact: jnovembre@uchicago.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    Print ISSN: 1367-4803
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2059
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-05-04
    Description: Identity-by-descent (IBD) is a fundamental concept in genetics with many applications. In a common definition, two haplotypes are said to share an IBD segment if that segment is inherited from a recent shared common ancestor without intervening recombination. Segments several cM long can be efficiently detected by a number of algorithms using high-density SNP array data from a population sample, and there are currently efforts to detect shorter segments from sequencing. Here, we study a problem of identifiability: because existing approaches detect IBD based on contiguous segments of identity-by-state, inferred long segments of IBD may arise from the conflation of smaller, nearby IBD segments. We quantified this effect using coalescent simulations, finding that significant proportions of inferred segments 1–2 cM long are results of conflations of two or more shorter segments, each at least 0.2 cM or longer, under demographic scenarios typical for modern humans for all programs tested. The impact of such conflation is much smaller for longer (〉 2 cM) segments. This biases the inferred IBD segment length distribution, and so can affect downstream inferences that depend on the assumption that each segment of IBD derives from a single common ancestor. As an example, we present and analyze an estimator of the de novo mutation rate using IBD segments, and demonstrate that unmodeled conflation leads to underestimates of the ages of the common ancestors on these segments, and hence a significant overestimate of the mutation rate. Understanding the conflation effect in detail will make its correction in future methods more tractable.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-11-09
    Description: The peopling of the Andean highlands above 2500 m in elevation was a complex process that included cultural, biological, and genetic adaptations. Here, we present a time series of ancient whole genomes from the Andes of Peru, dating back to 7000 calendar years before the present (BP), and compare them to 42 new genome-wide genetic variation datasets from both highland and lowland populations. We infer three significant features: a split between low- and high-elevation populations that occurred between 9200 and 8200 BP; a population collapse after European contact that is significantly more severe in South American lowlanders than in highland populations; and evidence for positive selection at genetic loci related to starch digestion and plausibly pathogen resistance after European contact. We do not find selective sweep signals related to known components of the human hypoxia response, which may suggest more complex modes of genetic adaptation to high altitude.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-12-16
    Description: Ancestry analysis from genetic data plays a critical role in studies of human disease and evolution. Recent work has introduced explicit models for the geographic distribution of genetic variation and has shown that such explicit models yield superior accuracy in ancestry inference over nonmodel-based methods. Here we extend such work to introduce a method that models admixture between ancestors from multiple sources across a geographic continuum. We devise efficient algorithms based on hidden Markov models to localize on a map the recent ancestors ( e.g. , grandparents) of admixed individuals, joint with assigning ancestry at each locus in the genome. We validate our methods by using empirical data from individuals with mixed European ancestry from the Population Reference Sample study and show that our approach is able to localize their recent ancestors within an average of 470 km of the reported locations of their grandparents. Furthermore, simulations from real Population Reference Sample genotype data show that our method attains high accuracy in localizing recent ancestors of admixed individuals in Europe (an average of 550 km from their true location for localization of two ancestries in Europe, four generations ago). We explore the limits of ancestry localization under our approach and find that performance decreases as the number of distinct ancestries and generations since admixture increases. Finally, we build a map of expected localization accuracy across admixed individuals according to the location of origin within Europe of their ancestors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-10-04
    Description: Motivation: Unique modeling and computational challenges arise in locating the geographic origin of individuals based on their genetic backgrounds. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) vary widely in informativeness, allele frequencies change non-linearly with geography and reliable localization requires evidence to be integrated across a multitude of SNPs. These problems become even more acute for individuals of mixed ancestry. It is hardly surprising that matching genetic models to computational constraints has limited the development of methods for estimating geographic origins. We attack these related problems by borrowing ideas from image processing and optimization theory. Our proposed model divides the region of interest into pixels and operates SNP by SNP. We estimate allele frequencies across the landscape by maximizing a product of binomial likelihoods penalized by nearest neighbor interactions. Penalization smooths allele frequency estimates and promotes estimation at pixels with no data. Maximization is accomplished by a minorize–maximize (MM) algorithm. Once allele frequency surfaces are available, one can apply Bayes’ rule to compute the posterior probability that each pixel is the pixel of origin of a given person. Placement of admixed individuals on the landscape is more complicated and requires estimation of the fractional contribution of each pixel to a person’s genome. This estimation problem also succumbs to a penalized MM algorithm. Results: We applied the model to the Population Reference Sample (POPRES) data. The model gives better localization for both unmixed and admixed individuals than existing methods despite using just a small fraction of the available SNPs. Computing times are comparable with the best competing software. Availability and implementation: Software will be freely available as the OriGen package in R. Contact: ranolaj@uw.edu or klange@ucla.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    Print ISSN: 1367-4803
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2059
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Medicine
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