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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2008-09-20
    Description: FtsZ is an essential bacterial guanosine triphosphatase and homolog of mammalian beta-tubulin that polymerizes and assembles into a ring to initiate cell division. We have created a class of small synthetic antibacterials, exemplified by PC190723, which inhibits FtsZ and prevents cell division. PC190723 has potent and selective in vitro bactericidal activity against staphylococci, including methicillin- and multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The putative inhibitor-binding site of PC190723 was mapped to a region of FtsZ that is analogous to the Taxol-binding site of tubulin. PC190723 was efficacious in an in vivo model of infection, curing mice infected with a lethal dose of S. aureus. The data validate FtsZ as a target for antibacterial intervention and identify PC190723 as suitable for optimization into a new anti-staphylococcal therapy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Haydon, David J -- Stokes, Neil R -- Ure, Rebecca -- Galbraith, Greta -- Bennett, James M -- Brown, David R -- Baker, Patrick J -- Barynin, Vladimir V -- Rice, David W -- Sedelnikova, Sveta E -- Heal, Jonathan R -- Sheridan, Joseph M -- Aiwale, Sachin T -- Chauhan, Pramod K -- Srivastava, Anil -- Taneja, Amit -- Collins, Ian -- Errington, Jeff -- Czaplewski, Lloyd G -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 Sep 19;321(5896):1673-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1159961.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Prolysis, Begbroke Science Park, Oxfordshire OX5 1PF, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Bacillus subtilis/chemistry/*drug effects/genetics ; Bacterial Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Cell Division/drug effects ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics ; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial ; Ligands ; Methicillin Resistance ; Mice ; Microbial Sensitivity Tests ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Protein Conformation ; Pyridines/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Staphylococcal Infections/*drug therapy ; Staphylococcus aureus/chemistry/*drug effects ; Thiazoles/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Tubulin/chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2010-04-13
    Description: The ovarian hormones oestrogen and progesterone profoundly influence breast cancer risk, underpinning the benefit of endocrine therapies in the treatment of breast cancer. Modulation of their effects through ovarian ablation or chemoprevention strategies also significantly decreases breast cancer incidence. Conversely, there is an increased risk of breast cancer associated with pregnancy in the short term. The cellular mechanisms underlying these observations, however, are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that mouse mammary stem cells (MaSCs) are highly responsive to steroid hormone signalling, despite lacking the oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Ovariectomy markedly diminished MaSC number and outgrowth potential in vivo, whereas MaSC activity increased in mice treated with oestrogen plus progesterone. Notably, even three weeks of treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole was sufficient to reduce the MaSC pool. In contrast, pregnancy led to a transient 11-fold increase in MaSC numbers, probably mediated through paracrine signalling from RANK ligand. The augmented MaSC pool indicates a cellular basis for the short-term increase in breast cancer incidence that accompanies pregnancy. These findings further indicate that breast cancer chemoprevention may be achieved, in part, through suppression of MaSC function.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse -- Vaillant, Francois -- Sheridan, Julie M -- Pal, Bhupinder -- Wu, Di -- Simpson, Evan R -- Yasuda, Hisataka -- Smyth, Gordon K -- Martin, T John -- Lindeman, Geoffrey J -- Visvader, Jane E -- England -- Nature. 2010 Jun 10;465(7299):798-802. doi: 10.1038/nature09027. Epub 2010 Apr 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD24/metabolism ; Antigens, CD29/metabolism ; Aromatase/metabolism ; Aromatase Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Cell Count ; Estrogens/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Female ; Humans ; Integrin beta3/metabolism ; Mammary Glands, Animal/*cytology ; Mice ; Nitriles/pharmacology ; Ovariectomy ; Paracrine Communication/drug effects ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy, Animal/physiology ; Progesterone/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism/pharmacology ; RANK Ligand/metabolism ; Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor/metabolism ; Receptors, Estrogen/deficiency ; Receptors, Progesterone/deficiency ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Stem Cells/*cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Triazoles/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : The approximate streamflow partitioning method which uses daily rainfall and streamfiow data was applied in Coastal Plain, Coastal Flatwoods, and Southern Piedmont physiographic regions for estimation of the surface and subsurface flow components of total streainflow. Sizes of the watersheds ranged from 9.6 km2 to 1,030 km. Although the streamflow partitioning method was developed and tested on the Coastal Plain physiographic region, results indicate that the procedure can be applied to other physiographic regions where available data are limited to daily values. The effect of channelization on the partitioned flow components in the Coastal Plain and Coastal Flatwoods physiographic areas was also examined. While channelization was found to decrease the storm-time base, it had no significant effect on the relative percentages of the partitioned flow components.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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