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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-11-29
    Description: Norovirus gastroenteritis is a major public health burden worldwide. Although fecal shedding is important for transmission of enteric viruses, little is known about the immune factors that restrict persistent enteric infection. We report here that although the cytokines interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and IFN-beta prevented the systemic spread of murine norovirus (MNoV), only IFN-lambda controlled persistent enteric infection. Infection-dependent induction of IFN-lambda was governed by the MNoV capsid protein and correlated with diminished enteric persistence. Treatment of established infection with IFN-lambda cured mice in a manner requiring nonhematopoietic cell expression of the IFN-lambda receptor, Ifnlr1, and independent of adaptive immunity. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of IFN-lambda for curing virus infections in the gastrointestinal tract.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4398891/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4398891/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nice, Timothy J -- Baldridge, Megan T -- McCune, Broc T -- Norman, Jason M -- Lazear, Helen M -- Artyomov, Maxim -- Diamond, Michael S -- Virgin, Herbert W -- 5T32A100716334/PHS HHS/ -- 5T32AI007163/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 5T32CA009547/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA177194/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31CA177194-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084887/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007163/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009547/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI083019/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI106772/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 16;347(6219):269-73. doi: 10.1126/science.1258100. Epub 2014 Nov 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. virgin@wustl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431489" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptive Immunity ; Animals ; Caliciviridae Infections/*drug therapy/*immunology/virology ; Capsid Proteins/immunology/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/*immunology/*therapeutic use ; Feces/virology ; Gastroenteritis/drug therapy/*immunology/virology ; Immunity, Innate ; Interferon-alpha/biosynthesis/immunology ; Interferon-beta/biosynthesis/immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Norovirus/*immunology/*physiology ; Virus Replication ; Virus Shedding
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9702
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The relationship between environmental variables (chiefly temperature and humidity) and the population dynamics of spider mites is reviewed. Both direct effects on the spider mites and indirect effects operating through effects on spider mite natural enemies (mainly phytoseiid mites) are discussed. Factors determining the environmental conditions actually experienced by spider mites (microenvironment) are presented. Microenvironmental information versus environmental information from nearby weather stations is evaluated for utility in predicting spider mite population dynamics. A comprehensive plant canopy/spider mite/phytoseiid model is used to simulate an irrigated maize/spider-mite/phytoseiid system in a semi-arid climate. Under nearly all tested combinations of weather and irrigation, substantial differences were seen between simulations that considered microenvironment and those that considered only environmental conditions above the plant canopy. Future research needs are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-0661
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: 2 ). Heat dissipation sensors were used to record variations in matric potential inside and outside the ETL's sampling area. Suction was maintained on lysimeters according to the matric potential experienced by the surrounding bulk soil. Cumulative lysimeter drainage was 199, 563, and 793 mm for the prairie, fertilized no-tillage, and fertilized chisel-plow agroecosystems for 132 wk between 25 June 1995 and 3 Jan. 1998. Drainage accounted for 11, 31, and 44% of precipitation inputs for the prairie, fertilized no-tillage, and fertilized chisel plow systems. Variability between lysimeter replicates was smallest for the prairie, where the coefficient of variation (CV) was 8.2%, and largest for the N-fertilized no-tillage agroecosystem (CV = 36.6%).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 4525-4530 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We analyze a simple model of a quantum cell composed of two Coulomb-coupled double dot systems with one electron in each double dot. The interaction of electrons with acoustic phonons is considered as the principal mechanism that relaxes the cell to the ground state. Non-Markovian stochastic equations for population differences and dipole moments of the constituent double dots are derived. It is found that in order for the bistable state of the quantum cell to exist, the effective energy of Coulomb repulsion between the double dot systems must exceed the individual tunnel splitting energy, as well as the phonon temperature. The behavior of the cell polarization near the critical temperature is described analytically. We calculate the damping rates determining cell relaxation to its minimum-energy state and discuss limitations on the speed of cell response to external fields caused by the finite relaxation time. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-06-16
    Description: Author(s): S. G. Choi, M. van Schilfgaarde, D. E. Aspnes, A. G. Norman, J. M. Olson, T. J. Peshek, and D. H. Levi We report the above-band-gap dielectric-function spectra ɛ a = ɛ a 1 + i ɛ a 2 of single-crystal ZnGeAs 2 grown epitaxially on (001)GaAs, and study it theoretically. After surface overlayers were removed chemically to minimize artifacts, pseudodielectric-function spectra 〈 ɛ 〉=〈 ɛ 1 〉 + i 〈 ɛ 2 〉 were acquired ellip... [Phys. Rev. B 83, 235210] Published Wed Jun 15, 2011
    Keywords: Semiconductors I: bulk
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-04-02
    Description: In plants, continuous formation of lateral roots (LRs) facilitates efficient exploration of the soil environment. Roots can maximize developmental capacity in variable environmental conditions through establishment of sites competent to form LRs. This LR prepattern is established by a periodic oscillation in gene expression near the root tip. The spatial...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-05-28
    Description: A coding polymorphism (Thr300Ala) in the essential autophagy gene, autophagy related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1), confers increased risk for the development of Crohn disease, although the mechanisms by which single disease-associated polymorphisms contribute to pathogenesis have been difficult to dissect given that environmental factors likely influence disease initiation in these patients....
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Directional thermal radiance from vegetation depends on many factors, including the architecture of the plant canopy, thermal irradiance, emissivity of the foliage and soil, view angle, slope, and the kinetic temperature distribution within the vegetation-soil system. A one dimensional model, which includes the influence of topography, indicates that thermal emissivity of vegetation canopies may remain constant with view angle, or emissivity may increase or decrease as view angle from nadir increases. Typically, variations of emissivity with view angle are less than 0.01. As view angle increases away from nadir, directional infrared canopy temperature usually decreases but may remain nearly constant or even increase. Variations in directional temperature with view angle may be 5C or more. Model predictions of directional emissivity are compared with field measurements in corn canopies and over a bare soil using a method that requires two infrared thermometers, one sensitive to the 8 to 14 micrometer wavelength band and a second to the 14 to 22 micrometer band. After correction for CO2 absorption by the atmosphere, a directional canopy emissivity can be obtained as a function of view angle in the 8 to 14 micrometer band to an accuracy of about 0.005. Modeled and measured canopy emissivities for corn varied slightly with view angle (0.990 at nadir and 0.982 at 75 deg view zenith angle) and did not appear to vary significantly with view angle for the bare soil. Canopy emissivity is generally nearer to unity than leaf emissivity may vary by 0.02 with wavelength even though leaf emissivity. High spectral resolution, canopy thermal emissivity may vary by 0.02 with wavelength even though leaf emissivity may vary by 0.07. The one dimensional model provides reasonably accurate predictions of infrared temperature and can be used to study the dependence of infrared temperature on various plant, soil, and environmental factors.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: CNES, Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing; p 749-758
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The scattering dynamics of sparse vegetation canopies were studied within the framework of the three-dimensional radiative transfer model of Kimes (1984). The model was upgraded by including an algorithm for the anisotropic scattering of a soil boundary. Validation of the model was carried out using measured directional reflectance data for two canopies exhibiting typical scattering behavior with low and intermediate vegetation density. The canopies were: an orchard grass canopy; and a hard wheat canopy. A number of factors were found contributing to the final reflectance distribution of the canopies, including: (1) the strong anisotropic scattering properties of the soil; (2) the geometric effect of the vegetation probability gap function on the soil anisotropy and solar irradiance; and (3) the anisotropic scattering of vegetation which is controlled by the phase function and the layering of leaves. The application of the theoretical results to the development of earth-observing sensor systems is discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); GE-23; 695-704
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The lack of accurate extensive geometric data on tree canopies has retarded development and validation of radiative transfer models. A stratified sampling method was devised to measure the three-dimensional geometry of 16 walnut trees which had received irrigation treatments of either 100 or 33 per cent of evapotranspirational (ET) demand for the previous two years. Graphic reconstructions of the three-dimensional geometry were verified by 58 independent measurements. The distributions of stem- and leaf-size classes, lengths, and angle classes were determined and used to calculate leaf area index (LAI), stem area, and biomass. Reduced irrigation trees have lower biomass of stems, leaves and fruit, lower LAI, steeper leaf angles and altered biomass allocation to large stems. These data can be used in ecological models that link canopy processes with remotely sensed measurements.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 12; 1525-154
    Format: text
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