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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉As animals and humans age, the motor system undergoes a progressive functional decline, leading to frailty. Age-dependent functional deteriorations at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) contribute to this motor aging. However, it is unclear whether one can intervene in this process to slow motor aging. The 〈i〉Caenorhabditis elegans〈/i〉 BK channel SLO-1 dampens synaptic transmission at NMJs by repressing synaptic release from motor neurons. Here, we show that genetic ablation of SLO-1 not only reduces the rate of age-dependent motor activity decline to slow motor aging but also surprisingly extends life span. SLO-1 acts in motor neurons to mediate both functions. Genetic knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of SLO-1 in aged, but not young, worms can slow motor aging and prolong longevity. Our results demonstrate that genetic and pharmacological interventions in the aging motor nervous system can promote both health span and life span.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: The objectives of this study were to remove heavy metals from wastewater through the biosorption method with modified biomass as an effective sorbent and to prepare metal/biomass composites with the same modified biomass as a direct template. Eggshell membrane (ESM) was selected and modified to adsorb heavy metals. Adsorption of metal ions on the modified ESM (MESM) might be attributed to electrostatic interaction, ion exchange and coordination effect with chelating ligands containing N and S on the surface of the MESM. The pH of the solution was a key factor affecting the adsorption. The Cu–Ag/MESM composites with uniform Cu–Ag NPs were prepared with MESM as matrices, and with Cu 2+ and Ag + adsorbed as metal sources. The Cu–Ag/MESM showed excellent catalytic performance in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the aqueous phase. Because of the high stability of the Cu–Ag NPs supported on the macro-dimension supporter, Cu–Ag/MESM can be easily separated after the catalytic reaction and recycled.
    Keywords: green chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Restoring and improving harmony between human activities and nature are essential to human well-being and survival. The role of wastewater infrastructure is evolving toward resource recovery to address this challenge. Yet, existing design approaches for wastewater systems focus merely on technological aspects of these systems. If system design could take advantage of natural ecological processes, it could ensure infrastructure development within ecological constraints and maximize other benefits. To test this hypothesis, we illustrate a data-driven, systems-level approach that couples natural ecosystems and the services they deliver to explore how sustainability principles could be embedded into the life phases of wastewater systems. We show that our design could produce outcomes vastly superior to those of conventional paradigms that focus on technologies alone, by enabling high-level recovery of both energy and materials and providing substantial benefits to offset a host of unintended environmental effects. This integrative study advances our understanding and suggests approaches for regaining a balance between satisfying human demands and maintaining ecosystems.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Call number: MOP S 12257
    In: International Journal of Remote Sensing
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: S. 469-475
    Series Statement: International Journal of Remote Sensing
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-10-09
    Description: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified multiple susceptibility loci that have highlighted the important role of TLR (Toll-like receptor) and CARD (caspase recruitment domain) genes in leprosy. A large three-stage candidate gene-based association study of 30 TLR and 47 CARD genes was performed in the leprosy samples of Chinese Han. Of 4363 SNPs investigated, eight SNPs showed suggestive association ( P 〈 0.01) in our previously published GWAS datasets (Stage 1). Of the eight SNPs, rs2735591 and rs4889841 showed significant association ( P 〈 0.001) in an independent series of 1504 cases and 1502 controls (Stage 2), but only rs2735591 (next to BCL10 ) showed significant association in the second independent series of 938 cases and 5827 controls (Stage 3). Rs2735591 showed consistent association across the three stages ( P 〉 0.05 for heterogeneity test), significant association in the combined validation samples (P corrected = 5.54 x 10 –4 after correction for 4363 SNPs tested) and genome-wide significance in the whole GWAS and validation samples ( P = 1.03 x 10 –9 , OR = 1.24). In addition, we demonstrated the lower expression of BCL10 in leprosy lesions than normal skins and a significant gene connection between BCL10 and the eight previously identified leprosy loci that are associated with NFB, a major regulator of downstream inflammatory responses, which provides further biological evidence for the association. We have discovered a novel susceptibility locus on 1p22, which implicates BCL10 as a new susceptibility gene for leprosy. Our finding highlights the important role of both innate and adaptive immune responses in leprosy.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-02-24
    Description: Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have demonstrated the association between genetic variants in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection, but it is still unknown about the disease-causing loci and potential mechanisms owing to the complicated linkage disequilibrium for this region. To systematically characterize the MHC variations in relation to the CHB infection, we fine mapped the MHC region on our existing GWAS data with SNP2HLA taken the Pan-Asian panel as reference and finally identified four independent associations. The HLA-DPβ1 amino acid positions 84–87, which drove the effect of reported single nucleotide polymorphisms rs9277535 and rs3077, showed the most significant association (OR = 0.65, P = 2.03 x 10 –8 ). The Leu-15 of HLA-C, conferring the effect of rs3130542, increased the risk of CHB infection independently (OR = 1.61, P = 3.42 x 10 –7 ). The HLA-DRβ1*13 , in perfect LD with glutamic at site 71, and rs400488, an expression quantitative trait locus for HLA-J , were newly identified to be associated with CHB infection independently (OR = 1.84, P = 3.84 x 10 –9 ; OR = 0.28, P = 6.27 x 10 –7 , respectively). HLA-DPβ1 positions 84–87 and HLA-DRβ1 position 71 implicated the P1 and P4 in the antigen-binding groove, whereas HLA-C position 15 affected the signal peptide. These four independent loci together can explain ~6% of the phenotypic variance for CHB infection, accounting for 72.94% of that explained by known genetic variations. We fine mapped the MHC region and identified four loci that independently drove the chronic HBV infection. The results provided a deeper understanding of the GWAS signals and identified additional susceptibility loci which were missed in previous association studies.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: According to the energy method, the dynamic stability of a crane’s telescopic boom under the periodic load is studied, which is known as parametric resonance, based on the design code for a crane (GB/T3811-2008), the stability analysis model of the box telescopic boom can be regarded as variable-section stepped columns. The parametric vibration equation of n-stepped columns which expressed as Mathieu Equation is deduced by the Hamilton Principle, then the Critical frequency equation of dynamic instability regions of the telescopic booms are derived, finally, the effects of damping to the dynamic stability of telescopic boom are discussed. The results show that, the dynamic instability regions are reduced when the damping coefficient is increased and the effect on the second dynamic instability region is more obvious, that means damping improves the structure’s dynamic stability.
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) with single-direction illumination is a powerful platform for biomedical imaging because of its wide-field, label-free, and high-surface-sensitivity imaging capabilities. However, two disadvantages prevent wider use of SPRM. The first is its poor spatial resolution that can be as large as several micrometers. The second is that SPRM requires use of metal films as sample substrates; this introduces working wavelength limitations. In addition, cell culture growth on metal films is not as universally available as growth on dielectric substrates. Here we show that use of azimuthal rotation illumination allows SPRM spatial resolution to be enhanced by up to an order of magnitude. The metal film can also be replaced by a dielectric multilayer and then a different label-free surface-sensitive photonic microscopy is developed, which has more choices in terms of the working wavelength, polarization, and imaging section, and will bring opportunities for applications in biology.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-09-03
    Description: NAC domain transcription factors are important regulators that activate the secondary wall biosynthesis in wood formation. In this work, we investigated the possible functions of an NAC family member SECONDARY WALL-ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN2 (PtSND2) using chimeric repressor silencing technology. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, subcellular localization and transcriptional activation analyses indicated that PtSND2 is a wood-associated transcriptional factor with the predicted transcriptional activation activity, which could be inhibited by the repression domain SUPERMAN REPRESSION DOMAIN X (SRDX) in yeast. Wood formation was severely repressed in transgenic poplar plants overexpressing PtSND2-SRDX . Meanwhile, the secondary cell wall thickness of xylem fibers was restrained, and the contents of cellulose and lignin were obviously decreased in the stems of transgenic plants. Further studies indicated that expressions of a number of wood-associated genes were down-regulated in the stems of transgenic plants. Our results suggest that PtSND2 may play important roles during the secondary growth of stems in poplar.
    Print ISSN: 0829-318X
    Electronic ISSN: 1758-4469
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-09-04
    Description: The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is the largest family of secondary active transporters and is present in all life kingdoms. Detailed structural basis of the substrate transport and energy-coupling mechanisms of these proteins remain to be elucidated. YajR is a putative proton-driven MFS transporter found in many Gram-negative bacteria. Here...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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