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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2008-02-22
    Description: Ischaemia of the heart, brain and limbs is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hypoxia stimulates the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other angiogenic factors, leading to neovascularization and protection against ischaemic injury. Here we show that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha), a potent metabolic sensor and regulator, is induced by a lack of nutrients and oxygen, and PGC-1alpha powerfully regulates VEGF expression and angiogenesis in cultured muscle cells and skeletal muscle in vivo. PGC-1alpha-/- mice show a striking failure to reconstitute blood flow in a normal manner to the limb after an ischaemic insult, whereas transgenic expression of PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle is protective. Surprisingly, the induction of VEGF by PGC-1alpha does not involve the canonical hypoxia response pathway and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). Instead, PGC-1alpha coactivates the orphan nuclear receptor ERR-alpha (oestrogen-related receptor-alpha) on conserved binding sites found in the promoter and in a cluster within the first intron of the VEGF gene. Thus, PGC-1alpha and ERR-alpha, major regulators of mitochondrial function in response to exercise and other stimuli, also control a novel angiogenic pathway that delivers needed oxygen and substrates. PGC-1alpha may provide a novel therapeutic target for treating ischaemic diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Arany, Zoltan -- Foo, Shi-Yin -- Ma, Yanhong -- Ruas, Jorge L -- Bommi-Reddy, Archana -- Girnun, Geoffrey -- Cooper, Marcus -- Laznik, Dina -- Chinsomboon, Jessica -- Rangwala, Shamina M -- Baek, Kwan Hyuck -- Rosenzweig, Anthony -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- P30 DK040561/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK040561-12/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK054477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Feb 21;451(7181):1008-12. doi: 10.1038/nature06613.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. zarany1@partners.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18288196" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Hypoxia ; Cells, Cultured ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism ; Ischemia/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism ; *Neovascularization, Physiologic ; Oxygen/metabolism ; Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism ; Trans-Activators/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors ; Transgenes/genetics ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2010-07-24
    Description: Obesity induced in mice by high-fat feeding activates the protein kinase Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) in adipose tissues. This results in phosphorylation of the nuclear receptor PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma), a dominant regulator of adipogenesis and fat cell gene expression, at serine 273. This modification of PPARgamma does not alter its adipogenic capacity, but leads to dysregulation of a large number of genes whose expression is altered in obesity, including a reduction in the expression of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin. The phosphorylation of PPARgamma by Cdk5 is blocked by anti-diabetic PPARgamma ligands, such as rosiglitazone and MRL24. This inhibition works both in vivo and in vitro, and is completely independent of classical receptor transcriptional agonism. Similarly, inhibition of PPARgamma phosphorylation in obese patients by rosiglitazone is very tightly associated with the anti-diabetic effects of this drug. All these findings strongly suggest that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARgamma may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin-resistance, and present an opportunity for development of an improved generation of anti-diabetic drugs through PPARgamma.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987584/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987584/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Choi, Jang Hyun -- Banks, Alexander S -- Estall, Jennifer L -- Kajimura, Shingo -- Bostrom, Pontus -- Laznik, Dina -- Ruas, Jorge L -- Chalmers, Michael J -- Kamenecka, Theodore M -- Bluher, Matthias -- Griffin, Patrick R -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK087853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K99 DK087853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084041-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-30/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027270/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH084512/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH084512-020010/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54-MH084512/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Jul 22;466(7305):451-6. doi: 10.1038/nature09291.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cancer Biology and Division of Metabolism and Chronic Disease, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20651683" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/drug effects/metabolism/physiopathology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/*antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications/*drug therapy/metabolism ; Dietary Fats/pharmacology ; Humans ; Insulin/metabolism ; Ligands ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Obesity/chemically induced/complications/*metabolism/physiopathology ; PPAR gamma/agonists/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Phosphoserine/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Thiazolidinediones/*pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-11-05
    Description: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha 4 (PGC-1α4) is a protein isoform derived by alternative splicing of the PGC1α mRNA and has been shown to promote muscle hypertrophy. We show here that G protein-coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) is a transcriptional target of PGC-1α4 and is induced in humans by resistance...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-07-28
    Description: Kynurenine metabolites are generated by tryptophan catabolism and regulate biological processes that include host-microbiome signaling, immune cell response, and neuronal excitability. Enzymes of the kynurenine pathway are expressed in different tissues and cell types throughout the body and are regulated by cues, including nutritional and inflammatory signals. As a consequence of this systemic metabolic integration, peripheral inflammation can contribute to accumulation of kynurenine in the brain, which has been associated with depression and schizophrenia. Conversely, kynurenine accumulation can be suppressed by activating kynurenine clearance in exercised skeletal muscle. The effect of exercise training on depression through modulation of the kynurenine pathway highlights an important mechanism of interorgan cross-talk mediated by these metabolites. Here, we discuss peripheral mechanisms of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism and their effects on inflammatory, metabolic, oncologic, and psychiatric disorders.
    Keywords: Biochemistry, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-12-16
    Description: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of improving physical performance in healthy subjects and in patients with common chronic diseases, but less so in elite endurance athletes. The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of HIIT are uncertain. Here, recreationally active human subjects performed highly demanding HIIT consisting of 30-s...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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