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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2010-07-24
    Description: Obesity induced in mice by high-fat feeding activates the protein kinase Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) in adipose tissues. This results in phosphorylation of the nuclear receptor PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma), a dominant regulator of adipogenesis and fat cell gene expression, at serine 273. This modification of PPARgamma does not alter its adipogenic capacity, but leads to dysregulation of a large number of genes whose expression is altered in obesity, including a reduction in the expression of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin. The phosphorylation of PPARgamma by Cdk5 is blocked by anti-diabetic PPARgamma ligands, such as rosiglitazone and MRL24. This inhibition works both in vivo and in vitro, and is completely independent of classical receptor transcriptional agonism. Similarly, inhibition of PPARgamma phosphorylation in obese patients by rosiglitazone is very tightly associated with the anti-diabetic effects of this drug. All these findings strongly suggest that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARgamma may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin-resistance, and present an opportunity for development of an improved generation of anti-diabetic drugs through PPARgamma.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="" target="_blank"〉〈img src="" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Choi, Jang Hyun -- Banks, Alexander S -- Estall, Jennifer L -- Kajimura, Shingo -- Bostrom, Pontus -- Laznik, Dina -- Ruas, Jorge L -- Chalmers, Michael J -- Kamenecka, Theodore M -- Bluher, Matthias -- Griffin, Patrick R -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK087853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K99 DK087853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084041-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-30/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027270/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH084512/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH084512-020010/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54-MH084512/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Jul 22;466(7305):451-6. doi: 10.1038/nature09291.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cancer Biology and Division of Metabolism and Chronic Disease, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/drug effects/metabolism/physiopathology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/*antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications/*drug therapy/metabolism ; Dietary Fats/pharmacology ; Humans ; Insulin/metabolism ; Ligands ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Obesity/chemically induced/complications/*metabolism/physiopathology ; PPAR gamma/agonists/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Phosphoserine/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Thiazolidinediones/*pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-06-13
    Description: Reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression and mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue have been associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whether this association is causally involved in the development of insulin resistance or is only a consequence of this condition has not been clearly determined. Here we studied the effects of adipose-specific deficiency of PGC-1α on systemic glucose homeostasis. Loss of PGC-1α in white fat resulted in reduced expression of the thermogenic and mitochondrial genes in mice housed at ambient temperature, whereas gene expression patterns in brown fat were not altered. When challenged with a high-fat diet, insulin resistance was observed in the mutant mice, characterized by reduced suppression of hepatic glucose output. Resistance to insulin was also associated with an increase in circulating lipids, along with a decrease in the expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism and fatty acid uptake in adipose tissues. Taken together, these data demonstrate a critical role for adipose PGC-1α in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and a potentially causal involvement in the development of insulin resistance.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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