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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-03-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Alatalo, R V -- Aragon, S -- Aviles, J M -- Barbosa, A -- Gomes, C Bessa -- Cadee, N -- Christe, P -- Cuervo, J J -- Diaz, M -- Erritzoe, J -- Galeotti, P -- Garamszegi, L Z -- Gil, D -- Gontard-Danek, M -- Legendre, S -- Martin, T E -- Martinez, J -- Martin-Vivaldi, M -- Martinez, J G -- Merino, S -- Moreno, J -- Mousseau, Tim -- Ninni, P -- Petrie, M -- Pulido, F -- Rubolini, D -- Saino, N -- Soler, J J -- Soler, M -- Spottiswoode, C -- Szep, T -- Thornhill, R -- Zamora, C -- Sacchi, Roberto -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Mar 12;303(5664):1612.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Ecology ; Publishing ; *Scientific Misconduct
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2056
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We studied patterns of chick growth and mortality in relation to egg size and hatching asynchrony during two breeding seasons (1991 and 1992) in a colony of chinstrap penguins sited in the Vapour Col rookery, Deception Island, South Shetlands. Intraclutch variability in egg size was slight and not related to chick asymmetry at hatching. Hatching was asynchronous in 78% (1991) and 69% (1992) of the clutches, asynchrony ranging from 1 to 4 days (on average 0.9 in 1991 and 1.0 days in 1992). Chicks resulting from oneegg clutches grew better than chicks in families of two in 1991. In 1992, single chicks grew to the same size and mass at 46 days of age as chicks of broods of two, suggesting food limitation in 1991 but not in 1992. In 1991, asymmetry between siblings in mass and flipper length was significantly greater in asynchronous than in synchronous families during the initial guard stage, but these differences disappeared during the later créche phase. In 1992, asymmetry in body mass increased with hatching asynchrony and decreased with age. Only the effect of age was significant for flipper length and culmen. Asymmetries at 15 days were similar in both years, but significantly lower in 1992 than in 1991 at 46 days of age. There were relatively frequent reversals of size hierarchies during both phases of chick growth in the two years, reversals being more common in 1991 than in 1992 for small chicks. In 1991, survivors of brood reduction grew significantly worse than chicks in nonreduced broods. In both years, chicks of synchronous broods attained similarly large sizes before fledging as both A and B chicks of asynchronous broods. In 1991, chick mortality rate increased during the guard stage due to parental desertions, decreased during the transition to crèches (occurs at a mean age of 29 days) and returned to high constant levels during the crèche stage, when it is mostly due to starvation (in total 66% of hatched chicks survived to fledging). In contrast, in 1992, mortality was relatively high immediately after hatching and almost absent for chicks older than 3 weeks (87% of chicks survived to fledging). Mortality affected similarly one- and two-chick families. In 1991, asynchronous families suffered a significantly greater probability of brood reduction than synchronous families, but this probability was not significantly related to degree of asymmetry between siblings. No association between asynchrony and mortality was found in 1992. These results show that there is food limitation in this population during the crèche phase in some years, that asynchronous hatching does not facilitate early brood reduction and that it does not ensure stable size hierarchies between siblings. Brood reduction due to starvation is not associated to prior asymmetry and does not facilitate the survival or improve the growth of the surviving chick. Asynchronous hatching may be a consequence of thermal constraints on embryo development inducing incubation of eggs as soon as they are laid.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-05-16
    Description: Animal populations are currently under pressure from multiple factors that include human land use and climate change. They may compensate for such effects by reducing, either by habituation or by natural selection, the distance at which they flee from humans (i.e., flight initiation distance), and this adaptation may improve their population trends. We analyzed population trends of common breeding birds in relation to flight initiation distance and geographical location (latitude, longitude, and marginality of the breeding distribution) across European countries from Finland in the north to Spain in the south while also considering other potential predictors of trends like farmland habitat, migration, body size, and brain size. We found evidence of farmland, migratory, and smaller-sized species showing stronger population declines. In contrast, there was no significant effect of relative brain size on population trends. We did not find evidence for main effects of flight initiation distance and geographical location on trends after accounting for confounding and interactive effects; instead, flight initiation distance and location interacted to generate complex spatial patterns of population trends. Trends were more positive for fearful populations northward, westward, and (marginally) toward the center of distribution areas and more negative for fearless populations toward the south, east, and the margins of distribution ranges. These findings suggest that it is important to consider differences in population trends among countries, but also interaction effects among factors, because such interactions can enhance or compensate for negative effects of other factors on population trends.
    Print ISSN: 1045-2249
    Electronic ISSN: 1465-7279
    Topics: Biology
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