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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-04-04
    Description: The CAG repeat expansion in the Huntington's disease gene HTT extends a polyglutamine tract in mutant huntingtin that enhances its ability to facilitate polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). To gain insight into this dominant gain of function, we mapped histone modifications genome-wide across an isogenic panel of mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) and neuronal progenitor cell (NPC) lines, comparing the effects of Htt null and different size Htt CAG mutations. We found that Htt is required in ESC for the proper deposition of histone H3K27me3 at a subset of ‘bivalent’ loci but in NPC it is needed at ‘bivalent’ loci for both the proper maintenance and the appropriate removal of this mark. In contrast, Htt CAG size, though changing histone H3K27me3, is prominently associated with altered histone H3K4me3 at ‘active’ loci. The sets of ESC and NPC genes with altered histone marks delineated by the lack of huntingtin or the presence of mutant huntingtin, though distinct, are enriched in similar pathways with apoptosis specifically highlighted for the CAG mutation. Thus, the manner by which huntingtin function facilitates PRC2 may afford mutant huntingtin with multiple opportunities to impinge upon the broader machinery that orchestrates developmentally appropriate chromatin status.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1993-02-19
    Description: Ligand-gated ion channels gated by glutamate constitute the major excitatory neurotransmitter system in the mammalian brain. The functional modulation of GluR6, a kainate-activated glutamate receptor, by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) was examined with receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Kainate-evoked currents underwent a rapid desensitization that was blocked by lectins. Kainate currents were potentiated by intracellular perfusion of PKA, and this potentiation was blocked by co-application of an inhibitory peptide. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify the site or sites of phosphorylation on GluR6. Although mutagenesis of two serine residues, Ser684 and Ser666, was required for complete abolition of the PKA-induced potentiation, Ser684 may be the preferred site of phosphorylation in native GluR6 receptor complexes. These results indicate that glutamate receptor function can be directly modulated by protein phosphorylation and suggest that a dynamic regulation of excitatory receptors could be associated with some forms of learning and memory in the mammalian brain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, L Y -- Taverna, F A -- Huang, X P -- MacDonald, J F -- Hampson, D R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1993 Feb 19;259(5098):1173-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8382377" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Base Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Brain/*physiology ; Cells, Cultured ; Concanavalin A/pharmacology ; Evoked Potentials/drug effects ; Humans ; Kainic Acid/*pharmacology ; Kidney ; Kinetics ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis, Site-Directed ; Oligodeoxyribonucleotides ; Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Receptors, Glutamate/drug effects/genetics/*physiology ; Receptors, Kainic Acid ; Serine ; Wheat Germ Agglutinins/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2008-12-06
    Description: Pannexin-1 (Px1) is expressed at postsynaptic sites in pyramidal neurons, suggesting that these hemichannels contribute to dendritic signals associated with synaptic function. We found that, in pyramidal neurons, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation induced a secondary prolonged current and dye flux that were blocked with a specific inhibitory peptide against Px1 hemichannels; knockdown of Px1 by RNA interference blocked the current in cultured neurons. Enhancing endogenous NMDAR activation in brain slices by removing external magnesium ions (Mg2+) triggered epileptiform activity, which had decreased spike amplitude and prolonged interburst interval during application of the Px1 hemichannel blocking peptide. We conclude that Px1 hemichannel opening is triggered by NMDAR stimulation and can contribute to epileptiform seizure activity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Thompson, Roger J -- Jackson, Michael F -- Olah, Michelle E -- Rungta, Ravi L -- Hines, Dustin J -- Beazely, Michael A -- MacDonald, John F -- MacVicar, Brian A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 Dec 5;322(5907):1555-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1165209.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychiatry and Brain Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2B5, Canada. rj.thompson@ucalgary.ca〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19056988" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Animals ; Calcium/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Connexins/genetics/*physiology ; Dendrites/physiology ; Electrical Synapses/physiology ; Epilepsy/physiopathology ; Hippocampus/*physiology/physiopathology ; In Vitro Techniques ; Mice ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Pyramidal Cells/*physiology ; RNA Interference ; Rats ; Rats, Wistar ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/*metabolism ; Synaptic Transmission
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-06-05
    Description: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/jm500515d
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1979-08-17
    Description: Mouse spinal neurons grown in tissue culture were used to study the membrane effects of the benzodiazepine flurazepam and the naturally occurring purine nucleoside inosine, which competes for benzodiazepine receptor sites in the central nervous system. Application of inosine elicited two types of transmitter-like membrane effects: a rapidly desensitizing excitatory response and a nondesensitizing inhibitory response. Flurazepam produced a similar excitatory response which showed cross-desensitization with the purine excitation. Flurazepam also blocked the inhibitory inosine response. The results provide electrophysiological evidence that an endogenous purine can activate two different conductances on spinal neurons and that flurazepam can activate one of the conductances and antagonize the other.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉MacDonald, J F -- Barker, J L -- Paul, S M -- Marangos, P J -- Skolnick, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1979 Aug 17;205(4407):715-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/37602" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Benzodiazepines/*metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Electric Conductivity ; Flurazepam/antagonists & inhibitors ; Inosine/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Ligands ; Mice ; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism ; Receptors, Drug/*metabolism ; Receptors, Neurotransmitter/metabolism ; Spinal Cord/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1999-06-12
    Description: The efficiency with which N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) trigger intracellular signaling pathways governs neuronal plasticity, development, senescence, and disease. In cultured cortical neurons, suppressing the expression of the NMDAR scaffolding protein PSD-95 (postsynaptic density-95) selectively attenuated excitotoxicity triggered via NMDARs, but not by other glutamate or calcium ion (Ca2+) channels. NMDAR function was unaffected, because receptor expression, NMDA currents, and 45Ca2+ loading were unchanged. Suppressing PSD-95 blocked Ca2+-activated nitric oxide production by NMDARs selectively, without affecting neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression or function. Thus, PSD-95 is required for efficient coupling of NMDAR activity to nitric oxide toxicity, and imparts specificity to excitotoxic Ca2+ signaling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sattler, R -- Xiong, Z -- Lu, W Y -- Hafner, M -- MacDonald, J F -- Tymianski, M -- NS 39060/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 11;284(5421):1845-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Lab 11-416, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10364559" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/*metabolism ; Calcium Channels/metabolism ; Cell Survival ; Cells, Cultured ; Enzyme Activation ; Guanylate Kinase ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins ; Membrane Proteins ; Mice ; N-Methylaspartate/toxicity ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Neurons/cytology/*metabolism ; Nitric Oxide/*metabolism ; Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism ; Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I ; Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase/metabolism ; Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/*metabolism ; Second Messenger Systems ; Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1980-05-30
    Description: The cellular mechanisms underlying picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity were studied by using mouse spinal neurons growing in tissue culture. Picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity in most but not all of the cells studied. The activity could be inverted by polarizing to positive potentials and eliminated either by decreasing the ratio of calcium to magnesium or by applying tetrodotoxin. When applied locally to individual cells, picrotoxin lowered spike threshold and induced spontaneous firing in some but not all cells tested. The results suggest that picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity involves rapidly summating synaptic activity which may be evoked by high-frequency repetitive firing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barker, J L -- MacDonald, J F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 30;208(4447):1054-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7375918" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials/drug effects ; Animals ; Calcium/pharmacology ; Cells, Cultured ; Magnesium/pharmacology ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Mice ; Picrotoxin/*pharmacology ; Seizures/*chemically induced ; Spinal Cord/*drug effects/physiology ; Synapses/*drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1991-09-06
    Description: In the mammalian central nervous system, receptors for excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters such as the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-kainate receptor mediate a large fraction of excitatory transmission. Currents induced by activation of the AMPA-kainate receptor were potentiated by agents that specifically stimulate adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity or were supported by intracellular application of the catalytic subunit of PKA by itself or in combination with cAMP. Furthermore, depression of these currents by a competitive inhibitor of PKA indicates that AMPA-kainate receptors are regulated by endogenous PKA. Endogenous protein phosphatases also regulate these receptors because an inhibitor of cellular phosphates enhanced kainate currents. Modulation of PKA and phosphatases may regulate the function of these receptors and thus contribute to synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, L Y -- Salter, M W -- MacDonald, J F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1991 Sep 6;253(5024):1132-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1653455" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Cyclic AMP/pharmacology/physiology ; Ethers, Cyclic/*pharmacology ; Fetus ; Hippocampus/*physiology ; Homeostasis ; Kainic Acid/*metabolism ; Kinetics ; Macromolecular Substances ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Mice ; N-Methylaspartate/pharmacology ; Neurons/drug effects/*physiology ; Okadaic Acid ; Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/*metabolism ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors ; Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Receptors, Kainic Acid ; Receptors, Neurotransmitter/drug effects/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-05-25
    Description: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00198
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 10
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