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  • 1
    Publication Date: 1987-12-18
    Description: The initial event in the infection of human T lymphocytes, macrophages, and other cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is the attachment of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to its cellular receptor, CD4. As a step toward designing antagonists of this binding event, soluble, secreted forms of CD4 were produced by transfection of mammalian cells with vectors encoding versions of CD4 lacking its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The soluble CD4 so produced binds gp120 with an affinity and specificity comparable to intact CD4 and is capable of neutralizing the infectivity of HIV-1. These studies reveal that the high-affinity CD4-gp120 interaction does not require other cell or viral components and may establish a novel basis for therapeutic intervention in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Smith, D H -- Byrn, R A -- Marsters, S A -- Gregory, T -- Groopman, J E -- Capon, D J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1987 Dec 18;238(4834):1704-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3500514" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology ; Animals ; Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/*immunology ; Cell Line ; HIV/immunology/*pathogenicity/physiology ; Humans ; Receptors, Virus/immunology/*physiology ; Recombinant Proteins/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1986-03-28
    Description: The DNA of the HTLV-III/LAV group of retroviruses contains certain additional open reading frames that are not found in typical avian or mammalian retroviruses. The role of these sequences in encoding for gene products that may be related to pathogenesis remains to be resolved. An open reading frame whose 5' end overlaps with the pol gene, but is unrelated to the env gene, has been observed in HTLV-III/LAV and visna virus, both cytopathic mammalian retroviruses. Evidence presented here shows that this open reading frame is a bona fide coding sequence of HTLV-III/LAV and that its product, a protein with a molecular weight of 23,000, induces antibody production in the natural course of infection.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, T H -- Coligan, J E -- Allan, J S -- McLane, M F -- Groopman, J E -- Essex, M -- CA 18216/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA 37466/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ST 32 CA 9382/ST/OHS HRSA HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1986 Mar 28;231(4745):1546-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3006243" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Antigens, Viral/*genetics ; Deltaretrovirus/*genetics/immunology ; *Genes, Viral ; Molecular Weight ; Retroviridae Proteins/*genetics/immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1985-11-15
    Description: A newly identified protein from HTLV-III/LAV, the virus implicated as the etiologic agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, was studied. This protein, which has a molecular weight of 27,000 (p27), was shown by amino acid sequencing to have a coding origin 3' to the env gene on the HTLV-III genome. The presence of antibodies to p27 in virus-exposed individuals indicated that this gene is functional in the natural host.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Allan, J S -- Coligan, J E -- Lee, T H -- McLane, M F -- Kanki, P J -- Groopman, J E -- Essex, M -- 2T32-CA09031/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA23885/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA37466/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1985 Nov 15;230(4727):810-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2997921" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*immunology/microbiology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/*immunology ; Antibody Formation ; Antigens, Viral/*immunology ; Deltaretrovirus/genetics/*immunology ; Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel ; Haplorhini/microbiology ; Humans ; Male ; Molecular Weight ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1985-01-11
    Description: Unexplained debilitating dementia or encephalopathy occurs frequently in adults and children with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Brains from 15 individuals with AIDS and encephalopathy were examined by Southern analysis and in situ hybridization for the presence of human T-cell leukemia (lymphotropic) virus type III (HTLV-III), the virus believed to be the causative agent of AIDS. HTLV-III DNA was detected in the brains of five patients, and viral-specific RNA was detected in four of these. In view of these findings and the recent demonstration of morphologic and genetic relatedness between HTLV-III and visna virus, a lentivirus that causes a chronic degenerative neurologic disease in sheep, HTLV-III should be evaluated further as a possible cause of AIDS encephalopathy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shaw, G M -- Harper, M E -- Hahn, B H -- Epstein, L G -- Gajdusek, D C -- Price, R W -- Navia, B A -- Petito, C K -- O'Hara, C J -- Groopman, J E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1985 Jan 11;227(4683):177-82.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2981429" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/microbiology ; Adult ; Antibodies, Viral/analysis ; Brain Diseases/*microbiology ; Cerebral Cortex/analysis/*microbiology ; Child ; Deltaretrovirus/*isolation & purification ; Dementia/microbiology ; Female ; Humans ; Infant ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; RNA, Viral/analysis
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1984-10-26
    Description: Peripheral blood leukocytes and saliva from 20 individuals, including four with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), ten with AIDS-related complex (ARC), and six healthy homosexual males at risk for AIDS, were compared as sources of transmissible human T-cell leukemia (lymphotropic) virus type III (HTLV-III), the virus found to be the etiologic agent of AIDS. All of the AIDS and ARC patients and four of the six healthy homosexuals had evidence of prior exposure to HTLV-III as indicated by seropositivity for antibody to HTLV-III structural proteins. Infectious virus was isolated from the peripheral blood of one of the AIDS patients, four of the ARC patients, and two of the healthy homosexual males, consistent with previous reports. HTLV-III was also isolated from the saliva of four of the ARC patients and four of the healthy homosexuals. Virus was also observed by electron microscopy in material prepared by centrifugation of the saliva of one AIDS patient. Although AIDS does not appear to be transmitted by casual contact, the possibility that HTLV-III can be transmitted by saliva should be considered.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Groopman, J E -- Salahuddin, S Z -- Sarngadharan, M G -- Markham, P D -- Gonda, M -- Sliski, A -- Gallo, R C -- N0I-CO-23910/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1984 Oct 26;226(4673):447-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6093247" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*microbiology ; Deltaretrovirus/*isolation & purification ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ; Homosexuality ; Humans ; Male ; Microscopy, Electron ; Monocytes/microbiology ; Saliva/*microbiology ; Viral Proteins/analysis
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1984-12-07
    Description: The human T-cell leukemia (lymphotropic) virus type III (HTLV-III) appears to be central to the causation of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Two full-length integrated proviral DNA forms of HTLV-III have now been cloned and analyzed, and DNA sequences of the virus in cell lines and fresh tissues from patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC) have been characterized. The results revealed that (i) HTLV-III is an exogenous human retrovirus, approximately 10 kilobases in length, that lacks nucleic acid sequences derived from normal human DNA; (ii) HTLV-III, unlike HTLV types I and II, shows substantial diversity in its genomic restriction enzyme cleavage pattern; (iii) HTLV-III persists in substantial amounts in cells as unintegrated linear DNA, an uncommon property that has been linked to the cytopathic effects of certain animal retroviruses; and (iv) HTLV-III viral DNA can be detected in low levels in fresh (primary) lymphoid tissue of a minority of patients with AIDS or ARC but appears not to be present in Kaposi's sarcoma tissue. These findings have important implications concerning the biological properties of HTLV-III and the pathophysiology of AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shaw, G M -- Hahn, B H -- Arya, S K -- Groopman, J E -- Gallo, R C -- Wong-Staal, F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1984 Dec 7;226(4679):1165-71.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6095449" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*microbiology ; Base Sequence ; Cell Line ; Child ; Cloning, Molecular ; Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral ; DNA Restriction Enzymes/metabolism ; DNA, Viral/*analysis ; Deltaretrovirus/*genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1984-10-26
    Description: Epidemiological results suggest that the etiological agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is transmitted primarily through blood products, semen, and saliva. There is evidence that the human T-cell leukemia (lymphotropic) virus type III (HTLV-III) is this agent. HTLV-III has been isolated repeatedly from T cells obtained from peripheral blood or lymph node tissue of AIDS and pre-AIDS patients and of healthy people believed to have been exposed to the virus. In the present study, HTLV-III was detected in and isolated from T cells present in the seminal fluid of AIDS patients. Mononuclear cells from the semen of AIDS patients and normal individuals were cultured in the presence of T-cell growth factor (interleukin-2). After 6 to 8 days, HTLV-III antigens were transiently expressed by the cells from the AIDS patients but not by those from the normal individuals. When the mononuclear cells from the semen of AIDS patients were cocultured with a permissive human T-cell line, cell cultures were produced that expressed high levels of reverse transcriptase activity, showed retroviral particles by electron microscopy, and were positive for HTLV-III-specific antigens when tested by fixed-cell indirect immunofluorescence with the use of monoclonal antibodies to the p24 and p15 antigens of HTLV-III.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zagury, D -- Bernard, J -- Leibowitch, J -- Safai, B -- Groopman, J E -- Feldman, M -- Sarngadharan, M G -- Gallo, R C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1984 Oct 26;226(4673):449-51.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6208607" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*microbiology ; Antigens, Viral/analysis ; Deltaretrovirus/*isolation & purification ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique ; Humans ; Male ; Microscopy, Electron ; Monocytes/microbiology ; RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/analysis ; Semen/*microbiology ; T-Lymphocytes/microbiology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1985-05-31
    Description: In this study, two glycoproteins (gp160 and gp120) that are encoded by human T-cell lymphoma virus type III (HTLV-III) were the antigens most consistently recognized by antibodies found in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and with the AIDS-related complex (ARC) and in healthy homosexual males. The techniques used to detect the glycoproteins were radioimmunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (RIP/SDS-PAGE). Although most antibody-positive samples from ARC patients and from healthy homosexual males also reacted with the virus core protein p24, less than half of the AIDS patients revealed a positive band with p24 under the same conditions. The ability to detect antibodies against a profile of both the major env gene encoded antigens and the gag gene encoded antigens suggests that the RIP/SDS-PAGE may be a valuable confirmatory assay for establishing the presence or absence of antibodies to HTLV-III in human serum samples.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barin, F -- McLane, M F -- Allan, J S -- Lee, T H -- Groopman, J E -- Essex, M -- 2T32-CA09031/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA 13885/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA 37466/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1985 May 31;228(4703):1094-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2986291" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*immunology/microbiology ; Antibodies, Viral/*immunology ; Antibody Specificity ; Antigens, Viral/*immunology ; Deltaretrovirus/*immunology ; Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel ; Humans ; Immunologic Techniques ; Molecular Weight ; Viral Envelope Proteins/*immunology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1986-07-11
    Description: Mammalian cell lines have been engineered to produce a secreted form of the AIDS retrovirus envelope glycoprotein. The recombinant protein has been isolated from growth-conditioned culture media and used to immunize animals. Antibodies directed against the recombinant molecule were found to react with the envelope glycoprotein produced in virus-infected cells. Furthermore, these antibodies were able to directly inactivate the AIDS retrovirus in a neutralization assay in vitro. The expression system reported here should provide sufficient quantities of the AIDS retrovirus envelope protein for biological and vaccination studies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lasky, L A -- Groopman, J E -- Fennie, C W -- Benz, P M -- Capon, D J -- Dowbenko, D J -- Nakamura, G R -- Nunes, W M -- Renz, M E -- Berman, P W -- HL 33774-01/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1986 Jul 11;233(4760):209-12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3014647" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*immunology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/*immunology ; Antigens, Viral/biosynthesis/*immunology ; Cricetinae ; Deltaretrovirus/*immunology ; Guinea Pigs ; HIV Antibodies ; HIV Antigens ; Humans ; Immune Sera/immunology ; Male ; Neutralization Tests ; Rabbits ; Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis/immunology ; Viral Envelope Proteins/biosynthesis/*immunology ; Viral Vaccines/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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