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  • 1
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    In:  Earth planet. Sci. Lett., Luxembourg, Deutsche Geophys. Gesellschaft, vol. 226, no. 3-4, pp. 383-395, pp. 2417, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 2004
    Keywords: Seismicity ; Volcanology ; long ; distance ; triggering ; Earthquake ; Stress ; EPSL
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-10-17
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-02-21
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0027-5107
    Keywords: (Rat) ; Behaviour ; Cyclophosphamide ; Physical changes ; Progeny
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Aneuploidy ; Cryoprotectant ; Fertility ; Polyploidy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In a previous study, we have shown that the cryopreservation of mouse oocytes caused increases in the rates of degeneration and of digynic polyploid embryos, while the fertility of frozen-thawed oocytes was decreased. In this study, we have attempted to determine the different stages in the complete freezing-thawing process which are deleterious for the oocytes and the subsequent zygotes. IVF assays showed that DMSO decreased the fertility of oocytes, whereas cooling to 0°C had no effect. DMSO, used at 0°C, was less deleterious for oocytes. Thus, the prefreezing manipulations seem to be important for the quality and fertility of oocytes. However, neither DMSO nor cooling increased the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in embryos obtained from inseminated exposed oocytes. Therefore, the increased frequency of polyploidy observed in embryos after the cryopreservation of mouse oocytes must correspond to disruption occurring during the freezing-thawing process.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-06-08
    Description: The societal importance and implications of seismic-hazard assessment forces the scientific community to pay increasing attention to the evaluation of uncertainty in order to provide accurate assessments. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) formally accounts for the natural variability of the involved phenomena, from seismic sources to wave propagation. Recently, increased attention has been paid to the consequences of alternative modeling procedures on hazard results. This uncertainty, essentially of epistemic nature, has been shown to have major impacts on PSHA results, leading to extensive applications of techniques like the logic tree. Here, we develop a formal Bayesian inference scheme for PSHA that allows us, on the one hand, to explicitly account for all uncertainties and, on the other hand, to consider a larger set of sources of information, from heterogeneous models to past data. This process decreases the chance of undesirable biases and leads to a controlled increase of the precision of the probabilistic assessment. In addition, the proposed Bayesian scheme allows (1) the assignment of a subjective reliability to single models, without requirement of completeness or homogeneity, and (2) a transparent and uniform evaluation of the strength of each piece of information used on the final results. The applicability of the method is demonstrated through the assessment of seismic hazard in the Emilia–Romagna region of northern Italy. In this application the results of a traditional Cornell–McGuire hazard model based on a logic tree are updated with the historical macroseismic records to provide a unified assessment that accounts for both sources of information.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-03-01
    Description: In order to keep track of the position and motion of our body in space, nature has given us a fascinating and very ingenious organ, the inner ear. Each inner ear includes five biological sensors—three angular and two linear accelerometers—which provide the body with the ability to sense angular and linear motion of the head with respect to inertial space. The aim of this paper is to present a dynamic virtual reality model of these sensors. This model, implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, simulates the rotary chair testing which is one of the tests carried out during a diagnosis of the vestibular system. High-quality 3D animations linked to the Simulink model are created using the export of CAD models into Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) files. This virtual environment shows not only the test but also the state of each sensor (excited or inhibited) in real time. Virtual reality is used as a tool of integrated learning of the dynamic behavior of the inner ear using ergonomic paradigm of user interactivity (zoom, rotation, mouse interaction, etc.). It can be used as a learning and demonstrating tool either in the medicine field—to understand the behavior of the sensors during any kind of motion—or in the aeronautical field to relate the inner ear functioning to some sensory illusions.
    Print ISSN: 1687-5591
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-5605
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-08-01
    Description: Any trustworthy probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis (PSHA) has to account for the intrinsic variability of the system (aleatory variability) and the limited knowledge of the system itself (epistemic uncertainty). The most popular framework for this purpose is the logic tree. Notwithstanding its vast popularity, the logic-tree outcomes are still interpreted in two different and irreconcilable ways. In one case, practitioners claim that the mean hazard of the logic tree is the hazard and the distribution of all outcomes does not have any probabilistic meaning. On the other hand, other practitioners describe the seismic hazard using the distribution of all logic-tree outcomes. In this article, we explore in detail the reasons for this controversy regarding the interpretation of logic tree, showing that the distribution of all outcomes is more appropriate to provide a joined, full description of aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty. Then, we provide a more general framework, that we call ensemble modeling, in which the logic-tree outcomes can be embedded. In this framework, the logic tree is not a classical probability tree, but it is just a technical tool that samples epistemic uncertainty. Ensemble modeling consists of inferring the parent distribution of the epistemic uncertainty from which this sample is drawn. Ensemble modeling offers some remarkable additional features. First, it allows a rigorous and meaningful validation of any PSHA; this is essential if we want to keep PSHA within the scientific domain. Second, it provides a proper and clear description of the aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty that can help stakeholders appreciate the whole range of uncertainties in PSHA. Third, it may help to reduce the computational time when the logic tree becomes computationally intractable because of too many branches.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-11
    Description: In this paper, we present a method for handling uncertainties in the determination of the source parameters of earthquakes from spectral data. We propose a robust framework for estimating earthquake source parameters and relative uncertainties, which are propagated down to the estimation of basic seismic parameters of interest such as the seismic moment, the moment magnitude, the source size and the static stress drop. In practice, we put together a Bayesian approach for model parameter estimation and a weighted statistical mixing of multiple solutions obtained from a network of instruments, providing a useful framework for extracting meaningful data from intrinsically uncertain data sets. The Bayesian approach used to estimate the source spectra parameters is a simple but powerful mechanism for non-linear model fitting, providing also the opportunity to naturally propagate uncertainties and to assess the quality and uniqueness of the solution. Another important added value of such an approach is the possibility of integrating information from the expertise of seismologists. Such data can be encoded in a prior state of information that is then updated with the information provided by seismological data. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated analysing data from the 1909 April 23 earthquake occurred near Benavente (Portugal).
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-05-05
    Description: We propose a procedure for uncertainty quantification in Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA), with a special emphasis on the uncertainty related to statistical modelling of the earthquake source in Seismic PTHA (SPTHA), and on the separate treatment of subduction and crustal earthquakes (treated as background seismicity). An event tree approach and ensemble modelling are used in spite of more classical approaches, such as the hazard integral and the logic tree. This procedure consists of four steps: (1) exploration of aleatory uncertainty through an event tree, with alternative implementations for exploring epistemic uncertainty; (2) numerical computation of tsunami generation and propagation up to a given offshore isobath; (3) (optional) site-specific quantification of inundation; (4) simultaneous quantification of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty through ensemble modelling. The proposed procedure is general and independent of the kind of tsunami source considered; however, we implement step 1, the event tree, specifically for SPTHA, focusing on seismic source uncertainty. To exemplify the procedure, we develop a case study considering seismic sources in the Ionian Sea (central-eastern Mediterranean Sea), using the coasts of Southern Italy as a target zone. The results show that an efficient and complete quantification of all the uncertainties is feasible even when treating a large number of potential sources and a large set of alternative model formulations. We also find that (i) treating separately subduction and background (crustal) earthquakes allows for optimal use of available information and for avoiding significant biases; (ii) both subduction interface and crustal faults contribute to the SPTHA, with different proportions that depend on source-target position and tsunami intensity; (iii) the proposed framework allows sensitivity and deaggregation analyses, demonstrating the applicability of the method for operational assessments.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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