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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-09
    Description: Chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing and denitrifying Gamma- (particularly the SUP05 cluster) and Epsilonproteobacteria (predominantly Sulfurimonas subgroup GD17) are assumed to compete for substrates (electron donors and acceptors) in marine pelagic redox gradients. In order to elucidate their ecological niche separation we performed 34S0, 15NO3-, and H13CO3- stable-isotope incubations with water samples from Baltic Sea suboxic, chemocline and sulfidic zones followed by combined phylogenetic staining and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry of single cells. SUP05 cells were small-sized (0.06–0.09 µm3) and most abundant in low-sulfidic to suboxic zones, whereas Sulfurimonas GD17 cells were significantly larger (0.26–0.61 µm3) and most abundant at the chemocline and below. Together, SUP05 and GD17 cells accumulated up to 48% of the labelled substrates but calculation of cell volume-specific rates revealed that GD17 cells incorporated labelled substrates significantly faster throughout the redox zone, thereby potentially outcompeting SUP05 especially at high substrate concentrations. Thus, in synopsis with earlier described features of SUP05/GD17 we conclude that their spatially overlapping association in stratified sulfidic zones is facilitated by their different lifestyles: Whereas SUP05 cells are streamlined, non-motile K-strategists adapted to low substrate concentrations, GD17 cells are motile r-strategists well adapted to fluctuating substrate and redox conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 435 (2005), S. 1226-1229 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Discovering why natural population densities change over time and vary with location is a central goal of ecological and evolutional disciplines. The recognition that even simple ecological systems can undergo chaotic behaviour has made chaos a topic of considerable interest among theoretical ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary To estimate the advantage of the small red blood cells (RBC) of high-altitude camelids for O2 transfer, the kinetics of O2 uptake into and release from the RBC obtained from llama, vicuña and alpaca were investigated at 37°C with a stopped-flow technique. O2 transfer conductance of RBC (G) was estimated from the rate of O2 saturation change and the corresponding O2 pressure difference between medium and hemoglobin. For comparison, O2 kinetics for the RBC of a lowaltitude camelid (dromedary camel) and the pygmy goat were determined and previously measured values for human RBC were used. O2 transfer of RBC was found to be strongly influenced by extracellular diffusion, except with O2 release into dithionite solutions of sufficiently high concentration (〉30 mM). TheG values measured in these ‘standard’ conditions,G st (in mmol · min−1 · Torr−1 · (ml RBC)−1) were: high-altitude camelids, 0.58 (averaged for llama, alpaca and vicuña since there were no significant interspecific differences); camel 0.42; goat, 0.42; man, 0.39. The differences can in part be attributed to expected effects of the size and shape of the RBC (volume, surface area, mean thickness), as well as to the intracellular O2 diffusivity which depends on the concentration of cellular hemoglobin. The highG st of RBC of highaltitude camelids may be considered to enhance O2 transfer in lungs and tissues. But the O2 transfer conductance of blood, θ, equal toG st multiplied by hematocrit (in mmol · min−1 · Torr−1 · (ml blood)−1), was only slightly higher as compared to other species: 0.20 (llama, alpaca, vicuña), 0.14 (camel), 0.18 (goat), 0.17 (man).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The oxygen binding properties of the blood of the camelid species vicuna, llama, alpaca and dromedary camel were measured and evaluated with respect to interspecific differences. The highest blood oxygen affinity, not only among camelids but of all mammals investigated so far, was found in the vicuna (P50=17.6 Torr compared to 20.3–21.6 Torr in the other species). Low hematocrits (23–34%) and small red blood cells (21–30 μm3) are common features of all camelids, but the lowest values are found in theLama species. Capillary densities were determined in heart and soleus muscle of vicuna and llama. Again, the vicuna shows exceptional values (3720 cap/mm2 on average in the heart) for a mammal of this body size. Finally, heart weight as percent of body weight is higher in the vicuna (0.7–0.9%) than in the other camelids studied (0.5–0.7%). The possibility that these parameters, measured in New World tylopodes at sea level, are not likely to change considerably with transfer to high altitude, is discussed. In the vicuna, a unique combination of the following features seems to be responsible for an out-standing physical capability at high altitude: saturation of blood with oxygen in the lung is favored by a high blood oxygen affinity, oxygen supply being facilitated by low diffusion distances in the muscle tissue. Loading, as well as unloading, of oxygen is improved by a relatively high oxygen transfer conductance of the red blood cells, which is due to their small size and which compensates the negative effect of a low hematocrit on the oxygen conductance of blood. Blood oxygen transport is presumably favored by two factors: a relatively large heart mass and, as a result of low hematocrit, a low blood viscosity. Both are advantageous for achieving a high maximal cardiac output.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Shifts in morphological and taxonomical composition of bacterioplankton communities in response to protist and metazoan grazing were studied in bottle experiments, exposing bacterioplankton from a eutrophic clear-water pond, dominated by a large population of Daphnia magna, to a Daphnia gradient, ranging from 0 to 60 individuals per liter. Prior to the first experiment, the bacterioplankton community was shaped by protist grazing, while for the second experiment, bacterioplankton was pre-adapted to Daphnia grazing. In both experiments, rapid shifts in biomass and structure of the bacterioplankton community upon exposure to Daphnia grazing were observed. High Daphnia densities suppressed protozoa, resulting in a dominance of free-living bacteria. Under low Daphnia densities, heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) developed as the dominant grazers and complex morphotypes (filaments, aggregates) were abundant in the bacterial community. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that taxonomical changes accompanied the morphological differences between bacterial communities shaped by HNF or Daphnia grazing. However, comparing ciliate- and Daphnia-dominated bacterial communities, we observed a discrepancy between morphological and taxonomical shifts, indicating that other traits than mere morphological ones determine vulnerability of bacterioplankton to specific grazers. Our results illustrate the rapid, pronounced and reversible impact of grazing on the morphology and taxon composition of bacterioplankton. Our results also stress that Daphnia may, already at moderate densities, have a pronounced impact on the lake bacterioplankton, both through direct grazing on the bacteria and through grazing on protozoan bacterivores.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We investigated the survival mechanism of the bacterium Pseudomonas sp. CM10 in the presence of a flagellate predator. The bacterium had been isolated from a continuous culture containing bacterivorous nanoflagellates. On agar plates, we found intraclonal dimorphism of Pseudomonas sp. CM10 colonies at high frequencies: The primary mucoid colony type generated a secondary non-mucoid form. Unlike the repeated generation of non-mucoid colonies from mucoid clones, we did not observe the occurrence of mucoid forms in non-mucoid populations. In semicontinuous and batch cultures, we investigated the ability of the two morphs to survive predation by the bacterivorous flagellate Ochromonas sp. under conditions of growth and starvation. In predator-free cultures, populations of both variants were unicellular but differed in some phenotypic characteristics such as cell motility and hydrophobicity. Grazing treatments revealed that the non-mucoid morph was reduced severely whereas the primary mucoid type survived due to the formation of inert suspended microcolonies stabilized by an extracellular matrix. Effectiveness and competitive trade-offs of microcolony formation were revealed by a competition experiment with the bacterium Pseudomonas putida MM1: Pseudomonas sp. CM10 was displaced in predator-free cultures but outgrew the defenseless and monomorphic competitor under flagellate grazing pressure. We conclude that intraclonal polymorphism may regulate the ability of Pseudomonas sp. CM10 to survive in situations of severe protistan grazing. The formation of inert microcolonies, however, is suggested to be detrimental to rapid growth and dispersal.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
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    Leitstelle Dt. Forschungsschiffe
    In:  Forschungsschiff Maria S. Merian : Reise Nr. MSM ... = Research vessel Maria S. Merian, 01 . Leitstelle Dt. Forschungsschiffe, Hamburg, Germany, 45 pp.
    Publication Date: 2013-04-10
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-10-26
    Description: Epsilonproteobacteria have been found globally distributed in marine anoxic/sulfidic areas mediating relevant transformations within the sulfur and nitrogen cycles. In the Baltic Sea redox zones, chemoautotrophic epsilonproteobacteria mainly belong to the Sulfurimonas gotlandica GD17 cluster for which recently a representative strain, S. gotlandica GD1T, could be established as a model organism. In this study, the potential effects of changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH on S. gotlandica GD1T were examined. Bacterial cell abundance within a broad range of DIC concentrations and pH values were monitored and substrate utilization was determined. The results showed that the DIC saturation concentration for achieving maximal cell numbers was already reached at 800 μmol L−1, which is well below in situ DIC levels. The pH optimum was between 6.6 and 8.0. Within a pH range of 6.6–7.1 there was no significant difference in substrate utilization; however, at lower pH values maximum cell abundance decreased sharply and cell-specific substrate consumption increased.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The Baltic Sea is one of the world’s largest brackish water bodies and is characterised by pronounced physicochemical gradients where microbes are the main biogeochemical catalysts. Meta-omic methods provide rich information on the composition of, and activities within, microbial ecosystems, but are computationally heavy to perform. We here present the Baltic Sea Reference Metagenome (BARM), complete with annotated genes to facilitate further studies with much less computational effort. The assembly is constructed using 2.6 billion metagenomic reads from 81 water samples, spanning both spatial and temporal dimensions, and contains 6.8 million genes that have been annotated for function and taxonomy. The assembly is useful as a reference, facilitating taxonomic and functional annotation of additional samples by simply mapping their reads against the assembly. This capability is demonstrated by the successful mapping and annotation of 24 external samples. In addition, we present a public web interface, BalticMicrobeDB, for interactive exploratory analysis of the dataset.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: archive
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: 1. The seasonal development of crustacean zooplankton, heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and bacteria was examined in Grosser Binnensee, a shallow, eutrophic lake in northern Germany. The grazing impact of Daphnia on bacteria and nanoflagellates was estimated from field data on population abundances and from clearance rates obtained in laboratory experiments.2. The seasonal succession of zooplankton showed distinct peaks of Daphnia magna, cyclopopid copepods, Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia galeata and D. hynlina. The population dynamics of Dapfinia had the strongest impact on all sestonic components. Daphnia maxima coincided with clearwater phases, and were negatively correlated with particulate organic carbon (POC), HNF and phytoplankton. Bacterial abundance was only slightly affected although daphnids were at times more important as bacterial consumers than HNF, as estimated from measured bacterial clearance rates. Other crustaceans (copepods, Bosmina) were probably of minor importance as grazers of bacteria and nanoplankton.3. HNF abundance varied from 550 ml−1 to more than 30000 ml−1. HNF appeared to be suppressed by daphnids and reached highest densities when copepods dominated the metazooplankton. The variation in HNF abundance was not reflected in the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria, which fluctuated rather irregularly between 5 and 20 ± 106 ml−1. Long filamentous bacteria which were probably resistant to protozoan grazing, however, appeared parallel to the development of HNF. These bacterial cells, although small in number, could comprise more than 30% of the total bacterial biomass.
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