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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Cheiropachus quadrum ; Dendrosoter protuberans ; parasitoids ; semiochemicals ; Phloeotribus scarabaeoides ; bioassays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The braconid Dendrosoter protuberans and the pteromalid Cheiropachus quadrum are two parasitoids of the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides. Several chemicals such as α-pinene, β-pinene, 2-decanone, 2-nonanone, decanal, undecanal, and n-butyl acetate have been identified as attractants in the laboratory for this scolytid. Under red light at 27°C in a laboratory olfactometer both parasitoids oriented positively to both enantiomers of α-pinene, and females also responded to 2-decanone. Significant responses did not occur under white light or at lower temperatures. These results suggest that α-pinene and 2-decanone could be involved in the location of P. scarabaeoides by its parasitoids. Consequently an attracticidal control tactic for this scolytid that included these chemicals could eliminate part of the parasitoid population. In an integrated pest management program, this problem should be considered.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Asymmetric synthesis ; 4-Octulose derivatives ; Aminations ; Double cyclization ; Polyhydroxyindolizidines ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Reaction of 3 with (cyanomethylene)triphenylphosphorane in refluxing dichloromethane or methanol gave mixtures of 4a and 4b in ratios of about 3:1 and 1:3, respectively. The same reaction performed with the furanoid isomer 5 afforded 6a and 6b in (E)/(Z) ratios of approximately 9:1 and 1:2, respectively. Catalytic hydrogenation of the α,β-unsaturated nitriles 4 and 6 with either 10% Pd-C or Raney nickel afforded the saturated nitriles 7 and 9, or the 1-amino-1,2,3-trideoxy-4-octulose derivatives 8 and 10, respectively. In an attempt to transform 6a into the appropriate polyhydroxylated branched-chain pyrrolidine 15, (5R,8S,9R,10S)-8,9,10-trihydroxy-1-aza-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decane, which was identified as its peracylated derivative 16, was isolated. Following an alternative synthetic strategy, partial hydrolysis of compound 9 afforded 17 which was regioselectively transformed into the corresponding derivative 22 via its 8-O-p-toluenesulfonyl derivative 18. Removal of the 4,5-O-isopropylidene group in 22 with aqueous trifluroacetic acid gave the free octulose 23, which was hydrogenated in the presence of 10% Pd-C, to afford the expected (6S,7R,8R,8aR)-6,7,8-trihydroxyindolizidine (1-deoxycasta-nospermine, 11).
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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