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  • 1
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Geoscientific Model Development, 11 (1). pp. 43-60.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Igneous intrusions in sedimentary basins may have a profound effect on the thermal structure and physical properties of the hosting sedimentary rocks. These include mechanical effects such as deformation and uplift of sedimentary layers, generation of overpressure, mineral reactions and porosity evolution, and fracturing and vent formation following devolatilization reactions and the generation of CO2 and CH4. The gas generation and subsequent migration and venting may have contributed to several of the past climatic changes such as the end-Permian event and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Additionally, the generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons and cracking of pre-existing oil reservoirs around a hot magmatic intrusion is of significant interest to the energy industry. In this paper, we present a user-friendly 1D FEM based tool, SILLi, which calculates the thermal effects of sill intrusions on the enclosing sedimentary stratigraphy. The model is accompanied by three case studies of sills emplaced in two different sedimentary basins, the Karoo Basin in South Africa and the Vøring Basin offshore Norway. Input data for the model is the present-day well log or sedimentary column with an Excel input file and includes rock parameters such as thermal conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) content, porosity, and latent heats. The model accounts for sedimentation and burial based on a rate calculated by the sedimentary layer thickness and age. Erosion of the sedimentary column is also included to account for realistic basin evolution. Multiple sills can be emplaced within the system with varying ages. The emplacement of a sill occurs instantaneously. The model can be applied to volcanic sedimentary basins occurring globally. The model output includes the thermal evolution of the sedimentary column through time, and the changes that take place following sill emplacement such as TOC changes, thermal maturity, and the amount of organic and carbonate-derived CO2. The TOC and vitrinite results can be readily benchmarked within the tool to present-day values measured within the sedimentary column. This allows the user to determine the conditions required to obtain results that match observables and leads to a better understanding of metamorphic processes in sedimentary basins.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The end-Triassic is characterized by one of the largest mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic, coinciding with major carbon cycle perturbations and global warming. It has been suggested that the environmental crisis is linked to widespread sill intrusions during magmatism associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). Sub-volcanic sills are abundant in two of the largest onshore sedimentary basins in Brazil, the Amazonas and Solimões basins, where they comprise up to 20% of the stratigraphy. These basins contain extensive deposits of carbonate and evaporite, in addition to organic-rich shales and major hydrocarbon reservoirs. Here we show that large scale volatile generation followed sill emplacement in these lithologies. Thermal modeling demonstrates that contact metamorphism in the two basins could have generated 88,000 Gt CO2. In order to constrain the timing of gas generation, zircon from two sills has been dated by the U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS method, resulting in 206Pb/238U dates of 201.477 ± 0.062 Ma and 201.470 ± 0.089 Ma. Our findings demonstrate synchronicity between the intrusive phase and the end-Triassic mass extinction, and provide a quantified degassing scenario for one of the most dramatic time periods in the history of Earth.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0960-0035
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: The research empirically investigates the relationships among supply chain B2B e-commerce, environmental uncertainty, organizational structure, and time-based delivery performance. The results show that B2B e-commerce enhances time-based delivery performance. The process turbulence component of environmental uncertainty has direct influence on B2B e-commerce implementation and an indirect influence as mediated by the integration dimension of organizational structure. Process turbulence thus indirectly has a positive effect on time-based delivery performance, whereas demand unpredictability has no effect. Integration within the firm associates with B2B e-commerce implementation, while decentralization and formal control are unrelated to B2B e-commerce.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    In:  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 280 (1/4). pp. 159-166.
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: Various theoretical and numerical models have been proposed in order to explain joint formation and spacing in layered rock series. However, most of these models assume that the interfaces between the rock layers are perfectly welded, i.e. no slip occurs, and that all the layers are subjected to the same remote strain due to various processes (e.g. tectonic processes). Other factors may also induce extensional strain in rocks, e.g. phase transformations. However, such processes may induce different amounts of strain on the layers in a rock series leading to a strain mismatch between these layers. In this paper, we present a 1-D finite difference linear elastic model which allows joint formation within the middle layer in a three-layer rock series and is induced by a strain mismatch between the fractured, central layer and the surrounding matrix. Furthermore, the central layer in our model is not necessarily welded to the matrix layers and is allowed to slip along the interfaces between these layers if the shear strength of the material at the interface is reached. We find that the final fracture spacing to layer thickness ratio (S/Tf) in such layered systems is directly proportional to the ratio of the tensile and shear strength of the material. Changes in the material properties such as the shear modulus or Young's modulus do not affect these results. A natural analog of joint formation driven by phase transformations is found in the orthopyroxenite dykes of the Leka Ophiolite Complex (LOC), Norway. Joint formation in orthopyroxenite dykes results from serpentinization-driven expansion of the surrounding dunite matrix. Detailed field studies and measurements (583 sample points) yield S/Tf ratios between 0.1 and 1.0 with a mean value of 0.45 ± 0.20. We demonstrate that the strain mismatch-driven joint formation associated with interfacial slip explains the low S/Tf ratios obtained from field measurements and may also help us constrain rock strength.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In the distributed nucleus approximation we represent the singular nucleus as smeared over a small portion of a Cartesian grid. Delocalizing the nucleus allows us to solve the Poisson equation for the overall electrostatic potential using a linear scaling multigrid algorithm. This work is done in the context of minimizing the Kohn–Sham energy functional directly in real space with a multiscale approach. The efficacy of the approximation is illustrated by locating the ground state density of simple one electron atoms and molecules and more complicated multiorbital systems. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
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    In:  [Invited talk] In: 8. International Workshop on Water Dynamics, 8.-10.03.2011, Sendai, Japan .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    In:  [Poster] In: AGU Fall Meeting 2011, 05.-09.12.2011, San Francisco, USA .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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