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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Hayabusa spacecraft arrived at S-type Asteroid 25143 Itokawa in November 2006, and reveal astounding features of the small asteroid (535 x 294 x 209 m). Near-infrared spectral shape indicates that the surface of this body has an olivinerich mineral assemblage potentially similar to that of LL5 or LL6 chondrites with different degrees of space weathering. Based on the surface morphological features observed in high-resolution images of Itokawa s surface, two major types of boulders were distinguished: rounded and angular boulders. Rounded boulders seem to be breccias, while angular boulders seem to have severe impact origin. Although the sample collection did not be made by normal operations, it was considered that some amount of samples, probably small particles of regolith, was collected from MUSES-C regio on the Itokawa s surface. The sample capsule was successfully recovered on the earth on June 13, 2010, and was opened at curation facility of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), Sagamihara, Japan. A large number of small particles were found in the sample container. Preliminary analysis with SEM/EDX at the curation facility showed that at least more than 1500 grains were identified as rocky particles, and most of them were judged to be of extraterrestrial origin, and definitely from Asteroid Itokawa. Minerals (olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, high-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe sulfide, Fe-Ni metal, chromite, Ca phosphate), roughly estimated mode the minerals and rough measurement of the chemical compositions of the silicates show that these particles are roughly similar to LL chondrites. Although their size are mostly less than 10 m, some larger particles of about 100 m or larger were also identified. A part of the sample (probably several tens particles) will be selected by Hayabusa sample curation team and examined preliminary in Japan within one year after the sample recovery in prior to detailed analysis phase. Hayabusa Asteroidal Sample Preliminary Examination Team (HASPET) has been preparing for the preliminary examination with close cooperation with the curation team.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 7-11 Mar. 2011; The Woodlands, TX; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: We have been studying laser-Raman radar which can be used as the remote detector of sulfur dioxide concentration in the stack plume of boiler exhaust gas, and some results have been published. In this paper, we report the interference of nitrogen dioxide fluorescence against sulfur dioxide Raman scattering and the measuring method of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide concentration. In a stack plume, high density dust and high concentration carbon dioxide are included, therefore very strong Mie back-scattering and carbon dioxide Raman scattering are observed. The separation of these scattering signals from sulfur dioxide Raman signal was the first problem for the laser-Raman radar. But, this problem was solved by using the filter which have high resolving power. It is well known that nitrogen dioxide can be excited to emit fluorescence of broad spectrum by blue-green light. The light source of the laser-Raman radar is SH of Nd:YAG laser, and boiler exhaust gas includes several tens ppm of nitrogen dioxide, then the interference of nitrogen dioxide fluorescence brings the error to sulfur dioxide measurement. 'rhe rejection of the interference can be achieved by the subtraction of the nitrogen dioxide fluorescence contribution from detected signal at sulfur dioxide Raman scattering wavelength. The nitrogen dioxide fluorescence contribution can be measured by two methods. The first is to convert the nitrogen dioxide fluorescence intensity which is measured at a different wavelength from sulfur dioxide Raman line into the one at sulfur dioxide Raman line. The second is to convert the detected signal intensity, which is obtained when the range gate is set just behind the plume, into the one obtained at the range of the plume using the difference of the time dependence between sulfur dioxide Raman scattering and nitrogen dioxide fluorescence. Nitrogen dioxide fluorescence has lifetime of about 300nS, while Raman scattering has none. By either of the two methods, the contribution of nitrogen dioxide fluorescence is determined. Then, we can measure the nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentration.The minimum detectable concentration and the experimental results of the remote sensing of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in stack plume will be discussed in detail.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: Fifth Conference on Laser Radar Studies of the Atmosphere, June 4-6, 1973, Hilton Inn, Williamsburg, Virginia: Conference Abstracts; 68-69
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-07-30
    Description: Motivation: DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification related to a variety of diseases including cancers. We focus on the methylation data from Illumina’s Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. One of the key issues of methylation analysis is to detect the differential methylation sites between case and control groups. Previous approaches describe data with simple summary statistics or kernel function, and then use statistical tests to determine the difference. However, a summary statistics-based approach cannot capture complicated underlying structure, and a kernel function-based approach lacks interpretability of results. Results: We propose a novel method D 3 M, for detection of differential distribution of methylation, based on distribution-valued data. Our method can detect the differences in high-order moments, such as shapes of underlying distributions in methylation profiles, based on the Wasserstein metric. We test the significance of the difference between case and control groups and provide an interpretable summary of the results. The simulation results show that the proposed method achieves promising accuracy and shows favorable results compared with previous methods. Glioblastoma multiforme and lower grade glioma data from The Cancer Genome Atlas show that our method supports recent biological advances and suggests new insights. Availability and Implementation: R implemented code is freely available from https://github.com/ymatts/D3M/ . Contact: ymatsui@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp or shimamura@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    Print ISSN: 1367-4803
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2059
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-12-04
    Description: Earthquakes sometimes cause serious disasters not only directly by ground motion itself but also secondarily by infrastructure damage, particularly in densely populated urban areas that have capital functions. To reduce the number and severity of secondary disasters, it is important to evaluate seismic hazards rapidly by analysing the seismic responses of individual structures to input ground motions. We propose a method that integrates physics-based and data-driven approaches in order to obtain a seismic wavefield for use as input to a seismic response analysis. The new contribution of this study is the use of the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) method, which is one of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, for estimation of a seismic wavefield, together with a 1-D local subsurface structure and source information. Numerical tests were conducted to verify the proposed method, using synthetic observation data obtained from analytical solutions for two horizontally layered subsurface structure models. The geometries of the observation sites were determined from the dense seismic observation array called the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network, which has been in operation in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan since 2007. The results of the numerical tests show that the proposed method is able to search the parameters related to the source and the local subsurface structure in a broader parameter space than the Metropolis method, which is an ordinary MCMC method. The proposed method successfully reproduces a seismic wavefield consistent with a true wavefield. In contrast, ordinary kriging, which is a classical data-driven interpolation method for spatial data, is hardly able to reproduce a true wavefield, even in the low frequency bands. This suggests that it is essential to employ both physics-based and data-driven approaches in seismic wavefield imaging, utilizing seismograms from a dense seismic array. The REMC method, which provides not only optimum estimates of model parameters but also their uncertainties without become trapped in local maxima, is a powerful method for the stochastic estimation of seismic wavefields.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-19
    Description: Although nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in bacteria and higher organisms, excessive intracellular NO is highly reactive and dangerous. Therefore, living cells need strict regulation systems for cellular NO homeostasis. Recently, we discovered that Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) retains the nitrogen oxide cycle (NO 3 – -〉NO 2 – -〉NO-〉NO 3 – ) and nitrite removal system. The nitrogen oxide cycle regulates cellular NO levels, thereby controlling secondary metabolism initiation (red-pigmented antibiotic, RED production) and morphological differentiation. Nitrite induces gene expression in neighboring cells, suggesting another role for this cycle as a producer of transmittable intercellular communication molecules. Here, we demonstrated that ammonium-producing nitrite reductase (NirBD) is involved in regulating NO homeostasis in S. coelicolor A3(2). NirBD was constitutively produced in culture independently of GlnR, a known transcriptional factor. NirBD cleared the accumulated nitrite from the medium. Nir deletion mutants showed increased NO-dependent gene expression at later culture stages, whereas the wild-type M145 showed decreased expression, suggesting that high NO concentration was maintained in the mutant. Moreover, the nir deletion mutant produced more RED than that produced by the wild-type M145. These results suggest that NO 2 – removal by NirBD is important to regulate NO homeostasis and to complete NO signaling in S. coelicolor .
    Keywords: Physiology & Biochemistry
    Print ISSN: 0378-1097
    Electronic ISSN: 1574-6968
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-09-22
    Description: Dissolved radiocesium concentrations in river water in a high-dose-rate forest watershed in Fukushima Prefecture were investigated under base flow and storm flow conditions. Under base flow conditions, dissolved 137 Cs concentrations in water [Bq/L] were relatively high in summer, and these levels were higher than particulate 137 Cs concentrations [Bq/L]. Under storm flow, particulate 137 Cs concentration became dominant as the suspended solid concentration increased. Throughout the monitoring period, dissolved 137 Cs concentrations in water [Bq/L] were higher under storm flow than base flow conditions and were positively correlated with runoff intensity. Factors influencing changes in dissolved 137 Cs concentrations were investigated by measuring the 137 Cs concentration of suspended solid [Bq/kg] and dissolved 137 Cs of unsaturated soil water, throughfall, and rainfall, together with other main solute concentrations. The 137 Cs concentration per unit weight of suspended solids in river water was not strongly correlated with runoff intensity. Additionally, dissolved 137 Cs concentrations of soil water, groundwater and rainfall were not detected, while higher dissolved 137 Cs concentrations were detected in throughfall than river water. K + concentrations were higher under storm flow than base flow, and dissolved organic carbon increased toward the peak flow rate. These findings suggested that one main factor influencing generation of dissolved 137 Cs in the river water was leaching from organic material in flooded areas. However, further investigation is needed to clarify the dominant source of dissolved 137 Cs in river water.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are biosynthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and transported via the Golgi apparatus to the extracellular space. The coat protein complex II (COPII) transport vesicles are approximately 60–90 nm in diameter. However, several ECM molecules are much larger, up to several hundreds of nanometers. Therefore,...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉High-temperature operation of semiconductor devices is widely demanded for switching/sensing purposes in automobiles, plants, and aerospace applications. As alternatives to conventional Si-based Schottky diodes usable only at 200°C or less, Schottky interfaces based on wide-bandgap semiconductors have been extensively studied to realize a large Schottky barrier height that makes high-temperature operation possible. Here, we report a unique crystalline Schottky interface composed of a wide-gap semiconductor β-Ga〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 and a layered metal PdCoO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉. At the thermally stable all-oxide interface, the polar layered structure of PdCoO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 generates electric dipoles, realizing a large Schottky barrier height of ~1.8 eV, well beyond the 0.7 eV expected from the basal Schottky-Mott relation. Because of the naturally formed homogeneous electric dipoles, this junction achieved current rectification with a large on/off ratio approaching 10〈sup〉8〈/sup〉 even at a high temperature of 350°C. The exceptional performance of the PdCoO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉/β-Ga〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 Schottky diodes makes power/sensing devices possible for extreme environments.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-12-16
    Description: Analyzing microRNAs (miRNAs) within urine extracellular vesicles (EVs) is important for realizing miRNA-based, simple, and noninvasive early disease diagnoses and timely medical checkups. However, the inherent difficulty in collecting dilute concentrations of EVs (〈0.01 volume %) from urine has hindered the development of these diagnoses and medical checkups. We propose a device composed of nanowires anchored into a microfluidic substrate. This device enables EV collections at high efficiency and in situ extractions of various miRNAs of different sequences (around 1000 types) that significantly exceed the number of species being extracted by the conventional ultracentrifugation method. The mechanical stability of nanowires anchored into substrates during buffer flow and the electrostatic collection of EVs onto the nanowires are the two key mechanisms that ensure the success of the proposed device. In addition, we use our methodology to identify urinary miRNAs that could potentially serve as biomarkers for cancer not only for urologic malignancies (bladder and prostate) but also for nonurologic ones (lung, pancreas, and liver). The present device concept will provide a foundation for work toward the long-term goal of urine-based early diagnoses and medical checkups for cancer.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-10-15
    Description: We have carried out monthly flask sampling using aircraft, in the altitude range of 0-7 km, over the boreal wetlands in Surgut (61°N, 73°E; since 1993) and a pine forest near Novosibirsk (55°N, 83°E; since 1997), both located in the West Siberian Lowland (WSL). The temporal variation of methane (CH 4 ) concentrations at all altitudes at both sites exhibited an increasing trend with stagnation during 2000-2006 as observed globally from ground-based networks. In addition to a winter maximum as seen at other remote sites in northern mid to high latitudes, another seasonal maximum was also observed in summer, particularly in the lower altitudes over the WSL, which could be attributed to emissions from the wetlands. Our measurements suggest that the vertical gradient at Surgut has been decreasing; the mean CH 4 difference between 5.5 km and 1.0 km changed from 64±5 ppb during 1995-1999 to 37±3 ppb during 2009-2013 (mean ± standard error). No clear decline in the CH 4 vertical gradient appeared at Novosibirsk. Simulations using an atmospheric chemistry-transport model captured the observed decrease in the vertical CH 4 gradient at Surgut when CH 4 emissions from Europe decreased but increased from the regions south of Siberia, e.g., East and South Asia. At Novosibirsk, the influence of the European emissions was relatively small. Our results also suggest that the regional emissions around the WSL did not change significantly over the period of our observations.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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