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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Immunogenicity of allogeneic immunoglobulins in mice were studied, measuring the allotype-specific antibody activity by agglutination of allogeneic antibody-coated red blood cells. It was found that the serum from C.B-20 mice (Igh b , BALB/c-congenic) was uniquely immunogenic in BALB/c mice for allotype antibody response. Whereas the C57BL/6 (Igh b ) serum was immunogenic only when heat aggregated and/or combined with adjuvant, the ultracentrifugation-deaggregated C.B-20 serum was definitely immunogenic when administered in a moderate dose (100 μl/mouse). Even more surprising was the fast that very low doses (0.01–0.1 μl) of soluble C.B-20 serum, but not C57BL/6 serum, down regulated the allotype-specific response effectively. Genetic analysis on congenic mice suggested that the immunogenicity is controlled by donorIgh orIgh-V(Id-C.B) inasmuch as the serum from BALB/c-congenic C.B-20 (Igh-V b C b ), but not BALB/c-congenic BAB/14 (Igh-V a C b ), mice was active in BALB/c mice in soluble form. Further studies showed that the Id-C.B was dominantly expressed on the immunoglobulins of (BALB/c×C.B-20)F1 and (C56BL/6×C.B-20)F1 strains, and was originally derived from the C57BL/Ka strain. The major determinant for the antibody production was encoded inIgh-C, but not inIgh-V. It is suggested thatId-C.B controls the allotype-specific antibody response in an unusual manner, possibly acting as a unique determinant activating helper T cells.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Early and late primary IgM antibody responses of mice to Thy-1.1 antigens showed different antigenic and cellular requirements. We studied genetic controls of the early primary responses, which could be induced by subcellular thymocyte antigens independently of host T-cell activity. All Thy-1.2 mouse strains of Igh a(BALB/c and BC8), Igh-V aCb(BAB14), Igh d(AKR/Cum), Igh j(CBA/J, C3H/HeN, C3H.SW, and C3H.JK), and Igh n(NZB) definitely responded early to Thy-1.1 antigens from AKR/J (Igh d), A.Thy-1.1 (Igh e), or B10.Thy-1.1 (Igh b) mice or SD rats, whereas all strains of Igh b(C57BL/6, C57BL/10, B10.D2, B10.BR, B10.A, CB20 and CWB), Igh c(DBA/2), Igh e(A/J), and Igh o(C.AL20) responded poorly to the same antigens. This contrasts with the observation that both strains of Igh j(C3H/HeN) and Igh b(B10.BR) responded well at later times. As was the case for late responses, the matching of H-2 between donor and recipient resulted in early responses of exceptional quality in high-responder strains. It was concluded that under the influence of H-2, whose incompatibility between donor and recipient partially interferes with responses, early but not late primary Thy-1.1-specific antibody responses are selectively controlled by Igh-V or closely linked Ir gene(s) as a new V Hmarker.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Immunogenicity for T cell-independent B-cell response assessed by splenic plaque-forming cell (PFC) response and cell-surface expression measured by laser flow cytometry of various class I H-2 antigens on mouse red blood cells (RBC) were compared. It was found that the order of magnitude of both immunogenicity and cell-surface expression on RBC is H-2Dd ≫ H-2Db 〉 H-2Kd, H-2Kb. Furthermore, H-2d public antigens and H-2Ld antigens were neither immunogenic nor easily demonstrable on RBC. These findings contrasted with poor immunogenicity for PFC response (Nakashima et al. 1982, 1983) and proportionally strong expression of H-2 antigens on lymphoid cells. Immunogenicity and cell-surface expression of H-2Dd antigen on RBC were not shown to be controlled by the action of genes outside H-2D. It was therefore suggested that a number of H-2 antigens, including H-2Kd private, H-2Kb private, and H-2d public specificities are at least functionally defective on RBC. This is possibly due to the structural characteristics of the antigens. Since immunogenicity and cell-surface expression were in parallel, the expression of H-2 antigens on RBC must be dictated by a subset of B cells whose activity was assessed by PFC response. This finding supports the view that the H-2 molecules display a new category of activity which is different from their ability to activate T cells and depends on their expression on RBC.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Zfp148 belongs to a large family of C2H2-type zinc-finger transcription factors. Zfp148 is expressed in fetal germ cells in 13.5-d-old (E13.5) mouse embryos. Germ-line transmission of mutations were not observed in chimeric Zfp148+/− mice, and some of these mice completely lacked ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: redox ; HgCl2 ; tyrosine phosphorylation ; p56lck ; signal complex ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Previously we showed that a thiol-reactive heavy metal, HgCl2, crosslinked multiple cell surface receptors through a ligand-independent pathway, which produced massive aggregates of phosphotyrosine (PTYR)-containing proteins beneath plasma membrane [Nakashima et al. (1994): J Immunol 152:1064-1071]. In this study we characterized these unique aggregates at the molecular level. The lysates in Brij 96 of thymocytes treated with HgCl2 were separated into the supernatant and pellet fractions by simple centrifugation. Selected PTYR-containing proteins and p56lck appeared in the pellet fraction as quickly as 5 s after exposure to HgCl2, and were further increased in amount by 5 min. Although the mechanism of triggering these events was redox-linked, the majority of proteins in the Brij 96-insoluble aggregates were dissociated in SDS-PAGE under nonreducing condition. This suggested that PTYR-containing proteins and p56lck themselves do not form dimer or polymer directly by thiol-mediated bond. The pellet fraction was further found to include some other signal delivery elements, such as GTPase activating protein, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Finally, all of these signal elements and selected PTYR-containing proteins were collected in the same fraction by the sucrose density gradient centrifugation. These results suggest a unique redox-linked pathway of formation of a giant signal complex.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: inducible NOS ; TNF-α ; IL 1-β ; IL-6 ; endotoxemia ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: In this study, we investigated the expression of genes for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) of Kupffer cells in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the tissue expression of iNOS in a rat liver after LPS injection at various time intervals. The effects of L-NG-nitroarginine-methyl-esther HCI (L-NAMF), a NO inhibitor, also were examined. The mRNA transcripts of TNF-α IL-1β and IL-6 were rapidly detected no more than at 1 h after LPS stimulation, whereas the iNOS transcript was detectable from 3 h after LPS stimulation and maximally increased at 12 h. This fact suggested that these early induced cytokines were related to expression of iNOS. Using an anti-iNOS antiserum raised against recombinant iNOS protein, immunohistochemical analysis was made to reveal kinetics of NO producing cells. The cells immunoreactive for iNOS appeared at 6 h post-LPS injection in the sinusoids of the liver. By structural and immunohistochemical studies, almost all iNOS positive cells were identified as Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. The number of cells immunoreactive for iNOS increased until 12 h post-LPS injection. At 24 h after LPS injection, iNOS positive cells were restricted to the foci of spotty necrosis. Hepatic injury measured by released enzymes was increased by pretreatment of L-NAME before LPS injection. J. Cell. Biochem. 65:349-358. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: mouse ; PDI family proteins ; retinoic acid ; dibutyryl cAMP ; differentiation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the expression of protein disulfide isomerase family proteins (PDI, ERp61, and ERp72) in mouse F9 teratocarcinoma cells during differentiation induced by treatment with retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP. Each member of this family was expressed at a constitutive level in undifferentiated F9 cells. During differentiation of F9 cells to parietal or visceral endodermal cells the protein level of all these enzymes increased, although the extent of this increase in both protein and mRNA levels varied among the enzymes. Certain proteins were found to be co-immunoprecipitated with PDI, ERp61, and ERp72 in the presence of a chemical crosslinker. Type IV collagen was significantly coprecipitated with PDI whereas laminin was equally coprecipitated with the three proteins. Furthermore, 210 kDa protein characteristically coprecipitated with ERp72. Thus, the induction of PDI family proteins during the differentiation of F9 cells and their association with different proteins may implicate specific functions of each member of this family despite the common redox activity capable of catalyzing the disulfide bond formation. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:436-445, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nitric oxide ; macrophage cell line ; T lymphocyte stimulation ; feedback suppression ; inflamation site ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The indirect stimulation of macrophages to produce nitrite was examined by using the macrophage cell line J774. J774 spontaneously produced nitrite, when cultured at high concentration. J774 cultured in low concentration ( 〈 104 cells in 100 μl) barely produced nitrite. J774 cultured in low concentration produced a large amount of nitrite by the co-culture of nonadherent spleen cells or nonadherent peritoneal exudate cells, which were stimulated with con A, anti-CD3, or staphylococcal enterotoxin A. J774 (BALB/c derived: H-2d) cultured with either syngeneic (BALB/c) or allogeneic (B6; H-2b B10BR; H-2k) nonadherent lymphocytes, which were stimulated with conA or anti-CD3, produced nitric oxide. However, J774 produced nitric oxide by stimulation with SEA only when co-cultured with SEA-reactive T lymphocytes. Peritoneal exudate cells from mice, which did not proliferate by the stimulation of conA or anti-CD3, proliferated well by the addition of L-arginine homologue, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. The proliferation of nonadherent peritoneal exudate cells stimulated with conA or anti-CD3 was suppressed by the addition of peritoneal macrophages. This suppression was abolished by the addition of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: monoiodoacetic acid ; sulfhydryl reagent ; modulation of signal transduction ; redox-linked ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Actions of monoiodoacetic acid (MIA) as a sulfhydryl reagent on the different stages of the T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signal transduction were examined. MIA (1 mM) prevented anti-TCR (CD3) monoclonal antibody (mAb)-induced energy-dependent receptor capping but at the same time promoted the anti-CD3 mAb/mitogen-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the T cell activation-linked cellular proteins of 120, 80, 70, 56, and 40 KDa. Relatively low concentration (0.01 mM) of MIA further promoted anti-CD3 mAb-induced transcription of c-fos, production of IL-2, and cell surface expression of IL-2 receptors. The MIA-promoted TCR-mediated IL-2 production actually required signal transduction that could be inhibited by cyclosporin A, genistein, or H-7. In contrast, the same concentration of MIA as promoted the signal transduction for cell activation severely inhibited the anti-CD3 mAb-triggered signal delivery for cell proliferation, selectively at its early stage. We conclude from these results that MIA differentially affects various steps of signaling into T lymphocytes, suggesting that there exist multiple sites of MIA-sensitive or redox-linked control in the signal cascade. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nitric oxide ; SNAP ; Mn-SOD ; inducible NOS ; vascular smooth muscle cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) produce nitric oxide (NO) under stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). NO synthase (NOS) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) mRNA expressions are simultaneously induced by these stimulants in rat VSMCs. In VSMCs, S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP), one of the NO releasing reagents, induces Mn-SOD mRNA which may protect the VSMCs themselves. This suggests that NO itself may enhance the expression of Mn-SOD to protect the VSMC themselves against NO radicals in cultured rat VSMCs. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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