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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract NMR measurements on12B nuclei implanted in a thin sheet of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (Grafoil) have been made to study the magnitude of the polarization of12B and its electric quadrupole coupling. The magnitude of the residual polarization of12B held in carbon material is of crucial importance to the experiment measuring the average polarization of12B produced in the muon capture by12C. It was found that the polarization of12B can be maintained at 101.0±2.2% in Grafoil under a magnetic field of 3 kG. The electric quadrupole coupling was determined to bee 2 qQ/h=+1207.3±8.2 kHz. From the magnitude and the sign of the electric field gradienteq, the location of12B was found to be a substitutional site in the carbon lattice. The anomalous B-C bond involving thesp 2 hybrid orbitals with partially filledp z electrons is also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-07-24
    Description: Copy number variations on human chromosome 15q11–q13 have been implicated in several neurodevelopmental disorders. A paternal loss or duplication of the Prader–Willi syndrome/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region confers a risk of obesity, although the mechanism remains a mystery due to a lack of an animal model that accurately recreates the obesity phenotype. We performed detailed analyses of mice with duplication of PWS/AS locus (6 Mb) generated by chromosome engineering and found that animals with a paternal duplication of this region ( patDp/+ ) show late-onset obesity, high sensitivity for high-fat diet, high levels of blood leptin and insulin without an increase in food intake. We show that prior to becoming obese, young patDp/+ mice already had enlarged white adipocytes. Transcriptome analysis of adipose tissue revealed an up-regulation of Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 ( Sfrp5 ), known to promote adipogenesis. We additionally generated a new mouse model of paternal duplication focusing on a 3 Mb region (3 Mb patDp/+ ) within the PWS/AS locus. These mice recapitulate the obese phenotypes including expansion of visceral adipose tissue. Our results suggest paternally expressed genes in PWS/AS locus play a significant role for the obesity and identify new potential targets for future research and treatment of obesity.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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