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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-05-18
    Description: This paper presents results of a multi-channel seismic reflection survey at Lake Van and provides constraints on the sedimentary evolution of the lake. The geophysical data of the lake confirm the existence of three physiographic provinces: a shelf, a slope, and a deep, relatively flat basin. The most prominent features identified on the shelf and slope are clinoforms, submerged channels, as well as closely spaced lake floor depressions, reflecting a highly variable lake-level history. The morphological depressions are interpreted as resulting from subaquatic erosion by channelized, sediment-laden currents into horizontally bedded fan sediments. Submerged channels on the eastern shelf are interpreted as meandering-slope channels, probably as a consequence of a lake-level fall that exposed the shelf area. Clinoforms on the Eastern fan may represent relict deltas formed during stationary or slightly rising lake-level intervals. Merging subsurface imaging interpretation with morphological studies of exposed sediments reveals lake-level fluctuations of several hundreds of meters during the past ca. ~550 ka. The lake has three prominent basins (Tatvan, Deveboynu, and the Northern basin) separated by basement ridges (e.g., the Northern ridge). The seismic units in the Tatvan and Northern basins are dominated by alternations of well-stratified and chaotic reflections, while the Deveboynu basin subsurface consists mainly of chaotic units. The chaotic seismic facies are interpreted as mass-flow deposits, probably triggered by earthquakes and/or rapid lake-level fluctuations. The moderate-to-high-amplitude, well-stratified facies seen in the deeper parts of the basins are interpreted as lacustrine deposits intercalated with tephra layers. The occurrence of a clinoform in the deepest part of the lake suggests a major flooding stage of Lake Van more than ~400 ka ago. Seismic profiles from the deepest part of the lake basin show remarkably uniform and continuous stratigraphic units without any major erosional feature following the flooding event, indicating that the lake was never completely dry afterward and therefore significantly older than previously suggested.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-05-01
    Description: “Wave” fields have long been recognized in marine sediments on the flanks of basins and oceans in both tectonically active and inactive environments. The origin of “waves” (hereafter called undulations) is controversial; competing models ascribe them to depositional processes, gravity-driven downslope creep or collapse, and/or tectonic shortening. Here we analyze pervasive undulation fields identified in swath bathymetry and new high-resolution multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data from the Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Although they exhibit some of the classical features of sediment waves, the following distinctive characteristics exclude a purely depositional origin: (1) parallelism between the crests of the undulations and bathymetric contours over a wide range of orientations, (2) steep flanks of the undulations (up to ∼40°), and (3) increases in undulations amplitude with depth. We argue that the undulations are folds formed by gravity-driven downslope creep that have been augmented by depositional processes. These creep folds develop over long time periods (≥0.5 m.y.) and stand in contrast to geologically instantaneous collapse. Stratigraphic growth on the upslope limbs indicates that deposition contributes to the formation and upslope migration of the folds. The temporal and spatial evolution of the creep folds is clearly related to rapid tilting in this tectonically active transform basin.
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉We discuss the structure of the present Hellenic subduction zone. We show that the present Hellenic subduction zone was formed at about 15 Ma when it started to consume the Mediterranean lithosphere and to form the large accretionary wedge that covers a large part of the eastern Mediterranean. We establish that there is independent evidence that the very large Hellenic Trough that it created was formed simultaneously. Shortly before, an 8–10 km thick backstop that extends 200 km southward, where it presently abuts the African margin, was put into place. We reconstruct the northern margin of the eastern Mediterranean Sea prior to the Hellenic subduction in a new and independent way. The faults recently identified by 〈a href="https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/cjes#refg57"〉Sachpazi et al. (2016〈span〉a〈/span〉〈/a〉. Geophysical Research Letters, 〈strong〉43〈/strong〉: 651–658) and 〈a href="https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/cjes#refg58"〉Sachpazi et al. (2016〈span〉b〈/span〉〈/a〉. Geophysical Research Letters, 〈strong〉43〈/strong〉: 9619–9626) within the Hellenic seismic slab are a key element of our reconstruction. This is because the slab, which is part of the Nubia plate, is rigid and the faults within it coincide with the lines of slip congruent with the relative motion of the Aegean block over it. These faults demonstrate that about 400 to 500 kilometers of eastern Mediterranean lithosphere have been subducted with essentially the same southwestward direction of motion during the last 15 Myr. Our reconstruction shows that before the onset of the Hellenic subduction, the northern margin of the eastern Mediterranean Sea coincided with a major Jurassic transform fault that limited the eastern Mediterranean to the north during its formation in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous as proposed in part 1. We discuss the implications of this reconstruction on the Neogene evolution of the Anatolia–Aegea block and its geodynamics.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0008-4077
    Electronic ISSN: 1480-3313
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉We identify long transform faults that frame the eastern Mediterranean Sea and that were active during Jurassic and probably the Early Cretaceous, during the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. We show that the African margin of the eastern Mediterranean Sea is an 1800 km long transform fault that absorbed the Africa/Eurasia Jurassic left-lateral motion during the opening of the central Atlantic. We call this transform fault the Eastern Mediterranean South Transform fault (EMST). We identify two other transform faults that were active simultaneously and framed the eastern Mediterranean Sea during its formation. These are the Apulia Transform fault (AT) and the Eastern Mediterranean North Transform fault (EMNT). The AT, three hundred km north of the EMST, followed the southern boundary of the Apulia block. Still 300 km farther north, the EMNT formed the northern boundary of this eastern Mediterranean shear zone. This last fault has been destroyed over a large portion by the Hellenic subduction. We relate these transform faults to the kinematics of the Jurassic Africa/Eurasia motion. We conclude that the eastern Mediterranean Sea is a long pull-apart created by left-lateral shearing of the Adria block as it was structurally linked to Africa.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0008-4077
    Electronic ISSN: 1480-3313
    Topics: Geosciences
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