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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Proliferation of Biological and Environmental Reference Materials (RMs), agencies and individuals preparing and characterizing them for a wide variety of inorganic and organic chemical constituents, makes it pertinent to look at the various certification approaches followed. This synopsis presents amalgamated versions of several of the major certification approaches, for natural-matrix RMs, alluding to some of the many factors that significantly affect the conduct and outcome of the analytical characterization exercises.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The analytical strategy for the elemental chemical characterization of biological reference materials followed during a recently completed Reference Material development endeavour is discussed. Characterization, the assignment of reliable values to total elemental concentrations of a wide range of elements, poses the most difficult challenge in the scheme of reference material (RM) production. A review is presented of the many factors considered that significantly impinged on the conduct and outcome of the complex analytical characterization exercise. Major considerations were: (1) analytical elemental characterization philosophy, (2) analyte selection, (3) selection of analytical methodologies, (4) statistical protocols, (5) in-house characterization, (6) assessment of material homogeneity (7) cooperative interlaboratory characterization campaign, (8) data evaluation and (9) calculation of concentration values and associated uncertainties.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A database from a recently completed multilaboratory characterization campaign of elemental concentration values in Biological Reference Materials has been evaluated and intercompared concerning method/laboratory performances and concentrations obtained therefrom with best estimate concentration values for a wide range of elements and materials. Performance parameters included within and between laboratory precision, accuracy (bias), element applicability and matrix effects. A brief assessment is presented of methodology/laboratory performance during this characterization exercise for the seven generic methods: atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic emission spectrometry (AES), mass spectrometry (MS), neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray emission spectrometry (XRES), (molecular) light absorption spectrometry (light AS) and electrochemistry (EC) coupled with a variety of sample treatment, ashing and digestion approaches.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The most cost-effective way of monitoring and maintaining reliability of an analytical procedure is by the incorporation of appropriate, compositionally-similar reference materials into the scheme of analysis. Agricultural and food commodities represent an extremely wide range of composition in respect of both the sought-for analyte and the remainder of the supporting material (matrix) which are not reflected in currently-available biological reference materials (BRMs). In an attempt to fill some of these gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials, cooperative work is underway to prepare and characterize a number of materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. The first two products of this venture, Maize Stalk and Maize Kernel Reference Materials 8412 and 8413, respectively, with recommended concentrations for eleven elements are available from USNBS. A third product, a powdered Bovine Muscle candidate reference material has been prepared in quantity. Meat from beef cattle (Bos Taurus) comprising muscles commonly-denoted round steak was trimmed, ground, freeze-dried, γ-ray sterilized, ball milled, sieved, blended and packaged. The final product was a finely powdered, visually uniform material consisting of muscle fibers with over 70% of the particles with radius of an equivalent sphere in the range 10–40 μm (median 25 μm). Efforts are underway to develop a number of other BRMs representative of the large number of important food classes. Cooperative work with expert analytical laboratories is anticipated to lead to characterization of the Bovine Muscle candidate reference material and the other materials in respect of concentrations of a large number of nutritionally, toxicologically and environmentally-important major, minor and trace chemical elements as well as proximate constituents such as protein, fibre, fat and ash.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Interlaboratory cooperative studies have been conducted under the auspices of the IUPAC Commission on Toxicology to establish concentrations of biological important trace elements in commercially available lyophilized human serum, whole blood and urine. The main objective was to arrive at consensus concentration values in order to establish these materials as reference materials for chemical analysis. The analytical data presently available have been elaborated in collaboration among world-wide expert laboratories.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Ten new Agricultural/Food Reference Materials (RMs) were characterized with respect to their elemental compositions via an interlaboratory characterization (certification) campaign. Chemical analyses were conducted in 73 cooperating laboratories applying 13 major classes of independently different analytical methods. A total of 213 best estimate values, and 65 informational values were obtained for Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, F, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V, W and Zn in the following RMs: Bovine Muscle Powder (NIST RM 8414), Whole Egg Powder (NIST RM 8415), Microcrystalline Cellulose (NIST RM 8416), Wheat Gluten (NIST RM 8418), Corn Starch (NIST RM 8432), Corn Bran (NIST RM 8433), Whole Milk Powder (NIST RM 8435), Durum Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8436), Hard Red Spring Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8437) and Soft Winter Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8438).
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A cost-effective approach to monitoring and maintaining reliability of analytical procedures is by the incorporation of appropriate, compositionally similar reference materials into the scheme of analysis. Agricultural and food commodities represent an extremely wide range of composition, in respect of the sought-for analyte and the supporting material (matrix), not fully reflected in currently available biological reference materials (BRM's). With the view to attempting to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to have suitable products for our laboratories' use, preparation has been completed of twelve candidate agricultural reference materials. These products, representing a number of food classes, include bovine muscle powder, hard red spring wheat flour, soft winter wheat flour, durum wheat flour, wheat gluten, corn bran, corn starch, potato starch, whole egg powder, whole milk powder, microcrystalline cellulose, and sugar. Preparative steps included, as required, freeze drying, grinding or ball milling, X-ray sterilization, sieving, blending and packaging to yield sizeable quantities of each material in finely powdered form. Cooperative analytical effort is expected to lead to characterization in respect of concentrations of a number of nutritionally, toxicologically and environmentally-pertinent, major, minor, and trace chemical elements. These materials will then be available for analytical chemical data quality control for inorganic constituents in a range of agricultural commodities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Bovine Muscle Powder (NIST RM 8414), Whole Egg Powder (NIST RM 8415) and Whole Milk Powder (NIST RM 8435) Reference Materials were characterized for essential and toxic major, minor and trace element composition in an interlaboratory cooperative characterization campaign. Extensive application of widely varied analytical methods yielded best estimate concentration values for 27, 23 and 21 elements, and informational concentration values for 5, 4 and 9 elements, respectively, in RM's 8414, 8415 and 8435. These Reference Materials are intended for analytical quality control of element determinations on meat, egg and milk-based products as well as agricultural/food materials with related matrices.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Ten new Agricultural/Food Reference Materials (RM) have been characterized with respect to their elemental compositions in an extensive interlaboratory characterization (certification) campaign. The philosophy applied to determine best estimate and informational concentration values was the expert analyst-independent method approach. Chemical analyses were conducted in two initiating laboratories and by analysts in 73 cooperating laboratories applying 13 major classes of independently different analytical methods; approximately 13,000 results were obtained for a large number of nutritionally, toxicologically and environmentally pertinent elements. Results were assessed in depth using technical judgment and statistical criteria. A total of 213 best estimate values, with associated uncertainties for a single future observation, and 65 informational values were obtained. Concentrations were measured for 34 elements in 10 materials which represent a wide range of matrices and elemental contents and significantly augment the world repertoire of reference materials.
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