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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-9104
    Keywords: tepary bean ; bean hardness ; sclerema ; antinutritional factor ; lectin ; chymotrypsin inhibitor ; trypsin inhibitor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Tepary samples were examined for patterns of hydration, dry matter losses during the processes of soaking and cooking, residual hardness in partially cooked samples and heat lability of endogenous proteinaceous antinutritional factors. At 24 °C, teparies imbibed water equivalent to their weight (100% hydration) in 4 h and continued to absorb water rapidly for an additional 4 h before reaching an equilibrium hydration. During the processes of soaking and cooking, materials leached from raw beans represented 7.3 and 13.5% of their dry weight, 4.3 and 12.4% of their protein content, 7.1 and 12.2% of their stored carbohydrate and 22.4 and 33.4% of their mineral levels, respectively. In samples prepared at different cooking times (60, 90, 120, 150, 180 min) and cooking temperatures (80, 85, 90, 95°C), longer times and higher temperatures resulted in greater reductions in residual bean hardness; interactive effects of time and temperature treatments were significant. Residual activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors in partially-cooked samples appeared to be negligible. In addition, at least 80% of the original hemaglutinating activity of lectins in raw beans was lost during partial-cooking of samples under all cooking regimes.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Chrysosplenium americanum ; Flavonoid localization ; Leaf ultrastructure ; Epidermis ; Mesophyll
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The intracellular localization of partially O-methylated flavonol glucosides was studied inChrysosplenium americanum leaves using caffeine as stabilizing and visualizing reagent. Electron microscopic observations and chromatographic data indicated that intracellular flavonoids were found to accumulate mainly within the walls of epidermal and mesophyll cells. Various membrane profiles and associated vesicles appeared to be involved in the packaging and channelling of the electron-dense material towards the cell wall. There was no evidence to suggest the participation of chloroplasts in these processes. The significance of flavonoid accumulation in cell walls was discussed in relation to the nature of these compounds and their possible ecophysiological role in this plant.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Lungs of twelve patients with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis (Pb) were studied in an attempt to understand the pathogenesis of the pulmonary disease. Ribbons of the lung parenchyma including the hilar region and directed towards apical, basal and lateral regions were subdivided into sections from the hilar, intermediate and peripheral segments. The following histopathological reactions directly or indirectly related to P. brasiliensis were described and analysed in relation to the number of slides studied and the pulmonary region involved: (1) pneumonic reaction; (2) early granulomatous formation; (3) mature and healed granulomata; (4) mixed pattern (early and mature granuloma in the same pulmonary area visualized in the slide); (5) pulmonary fibrosis. It was concluded that chronic pulmonary Pb is a recurrent disease affecting equally both lungs. Fibrosis was connected mainly with the progressive evolution of the granulomata towards cicatrization and to a lesser degree probably to a direct induction by the fungi. Based chiefly on the tendency of the fibrosis to run around bronchi and to make up septa interconnecting bronchi and vessels it was hipothesized that these findings were the result of a previous chronic specific lymphangitis by the fungi. Hilar fibrosis would be the result of this lymphangitis and/or of the progression of the specific granulomatous reaction seen in the hilar lymph nodes. Non specific forms of arteritis and areas of destructive emphysema related to granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis were described. Three cases developed pulmonary hypertension.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The interaction of three commercial zinc polycarboxylate cements with tooth structure was investigated by using infrared spectroscopic techniques. The obtained data revealed that the cements interact with enamel and ionic bonds are formed between calcium ions in enamel and carboxyl groups in polycarboxylic acid. The interaction depends on the percentages of ZnO content in the powders and of carboxylic acid in the liquids of these cements. The results provided some evidence that the cements also may interact with dentin but to a lesser extent than with enamel. The interaction of the cements with the metals copper and nickel or with Cr2O3, was also studied.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary 1. An electro-chromatographic method was developed for the separation and identification of 26 different amino acids. This method proved to be time saving and most suitable for routine analyses in physicochemical work. 2. This technique was applied in studying the amino acid pattern of algal extracts of nine common species representing Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta, from Alexandria shore. 3. A semi-quantitative method, based on visual comparison of intensity of colour and size of spots with standardized records, was described and used in this investigation. 4. The comparative results showed that the highest amino acid content was found in Pterocladia, followed by Ulva and Dictyota for the protein fraction; Codium, Pterocladia and Enteromorpha for the peptide fraction, and Pterocladia, Hypnea and Codium for free amino acids. 5. Each alga has its own amino acid pattern in the proteins, peptides and free state; but qualitative differences were less significant than quantitative variations, which may not conform to the general pattern of the group.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary This investigation includes a study of the effect of ammonium salt, nitrate and urea as nitrogen sources; vitamin B6 as cofactor in transamination, and of acetate, pyruvate and glucose as carbon sources on the dry weight, total nitrogen and amino acid synthesis in Ulva, Dictyota and Pterocladia. The results showed that urea and to a lesser extent ammonium salt were better nitrogen sources for either Ulva or Pterocladia, while ammonium salt was best for Dictyota. Vitamin B6 was effective in transaminations and resynthesis of amino acids in the three marine algae, especially Ulva. Pyruvate was a better carbon source than either acetate or glucose in increasing dry weights, total nitrogen and amino acid synthesis in Ulva and Dictyota, whereas acetate was best in Pterocladia.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Nonlinear dynamics 1 (1990), S. 91-116 
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: internal resonance ; random vibrations ; non-Gaussian closure experiments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents the experimental results of random excitation of a nonlinear two-degree-of-freedom system in the neighborhood of internal resonance. The random signals of the excitation and response coordinates are processed to estimate the mean squares, autocorrelation functions, power spectral densities, and probability density functions. The results are qualitatively compared with those predicted by the Fokker-Planck equation together with a non-Gaussian closure scheme. The effects of system damping ratios, nonlinear coupling parameter, internal detuning ratio, and excitation spectral density level are considered in both studies except the effect of damping ratios is not considered in the experimental investigation. Both studies reveal similar dynamic features such as autoparametric absorber effect and stochastic instability of the coupled system. The experimental results show that the autocorrelation function of the coupled system has the feature of ultra narrow band process and degenerates to a periodic one as the internal detuning departs from the exact internal resonance condition. The measured probability density functions of the response of the main system suggests that the Gaussian representation is sufticient as long as the excitation level is relatively low in the neighborhood of the system internal resonance condition.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Nonlinear dynamics 14 (1997), S. 377-406 
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Cable nonlinear dynamics ; co-ordinate transformation ; fluid-structure interaction ; divergence and flutter stability ; two-time-scale asymptotic analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The nonlinear interaction of the first two in-plane modes of a suspended cable with a moving fluid along the plane of the cable is studied. The governing equations of motion for two-mode interaction are derived on the basis of a general continuum model. The interaction causes the modal differential equations of the cable to be non-self-adjoint. As the flow speed increases above a certain critical value, the cable experiences oscillatory motion similar to the flutter of aeroelastic structures. A co-ordinate transformation in terms of the transverse and stretching motions of the cable is introduced to reduce the two nonlinearly coupled differential equations into a linear ordinary differential equation governing the stretching motion, and a strongly nonlinear differential equation for the transverse motion. For small values of the gravity-to-stiffness ratio the dynamics of the cable is examined using a two-time-scale approach. Numerical integration of the modal equations shows that the cable experiences stretching oscillations only when the flow speed exceeds a certain level. Above this level both stretching and transverse motions take place. The influences of system parameters such as gravity-to-stiffness ratio and density ratio on the response characteristics are also reported.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: liquid sloshing modeling ; impact ; parametric resonance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The parametric excitation of an elevated water tower experiencing sloshing hydro-dynamic impact is studied using the multiple scales method. The liquid sloshing mass is replaced by a mechanical model in the form of a simple pendulum experiencing impacts with the tank walls. The impact loads are modeled based on a phenomenological representation in the form of a power function with a higher exponent. In this case the system equations of motion include impact nonlinearities (selected to be of fifth power) and cubic structural geometric nonlinearities. When the first mode is parametrically excited the system exhibits hard nonlinear behavior and the impact loading reduced the response amplitude. On the other hand, when the second mode is parametrically excited, the impact loading results in complex response behavior characterized by multiple steady state solutions, where the response switches from soft to hard nonlinear characteristics. Under combined parametric resonance, the system possesses a single steady-state response in the absence and in the presence of impact. However, the system behaves like a soft system in the absence of impact and like a hard system in the presence of impact.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Nonlinear dynamics 8 (1995), S. 385-413 
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Parametric excitation ; nonlinear random vibration ; bifurcation and stochastic stability ; experimental testing ; on-off intermittency ; moment closures ; Monte Carlo simulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The stochastic bifurcation and response statistics of nonlinear modal interaction under parametric random excitation are studied analytically, numerically and experimentally. Two basic definitions of stochastic bifurcation are first introduced. These are bifurcation in distribution and bifurcation in moments. bifurcation in moments is examined for the case of a coupled oscillator subjected to parametric filtered white noise. The center frequency of the excitation is selected to be close to either twice the first mode or second mode natural frequencies or the sum of the two. The stochastic bifurcation in moments is predicted using the Fokker-Planck equation together with gaussian and non-Gaussian closures and numerically using the Monte Carlo simulation. When one mode is parametrically excited it transfers energy to the other mode due to nonlinear modal interaction. The Gaussian closure solution gives close results to those predicted numerically only in regions well remote from bifurcation points. However, bifurcation points predicted by the non-Gaussian closure are in good agreement with those estimated by numerical simulation. Depending on the excitation level, the probability density of the excited mode is strongly non-Gaussian and exhibits multi-maxima as predicted by Monte Carlo simulation. Experimental tests are carried out at relatively low excitation levels. In the neighborhood of stochastic bifurcation in mean square the measured results exhibit different regimes of response characteristics including zero motion and occasional small random motion regimes. These two regimes are characterized by the phenomenon of on-off intermittency. Both regimes overlap and thus it is difficult to locate experimentally the bifurcation point.
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