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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Keywords: Key words Limonin ; Debittering ; Immobilization ; Rhodococcus fascians ; Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Limonin can be effectively degraded by Rhodococcus fascians cells. These bacteria can be entrapped in κ-carrageenan, and used in a continuous stirred tank reactor to degrade limonin in a continuous process. The effects of temperature, limonin concentration, dilution rate, and aeration on the reactor behaviour have been tested, and the results correlated with changes in limonin conversion, substrate degradation rate, and free and immobilized biomass. Results showed that the immobilized cells were able to debitter limonin-containing media and the immobilized biomass was quite stable throughout the operational conditions tested. A population of free biomass was present in the reactor, the quantity of which was dependent on dilution rate. The immobilized bacteria increased its limonin-degrading capability when the substrate concentration was increased. The aeration was not strictly necessary for limonin degradation. Additionally, the immobilized cells were active and stable for more than 2 months of continuous operation, and were able to recover their limonin-degrading capability when used intermittently. Finally, none of the main components of a juice was noticeably altered during limonin degradation, so the reactor response was good enough to consider its application.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Plant cell suspensions of grape cells (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux) were grown in shake flasks operated both in the batch and semicontinuous mode. A mathematical model was developed to describe grape cell growth, sucrose uptake, and secondary metabolite (anthocyanin) production. Parameters were estimated from batch studies data. The model was able to predict results for semicontinuous experiments by only modifying the value of four of these parameters. The modified parameters (maximum specific rate of biomass production, maximum specific rate of substrate consumption for maintenance, maximum specific rate of anthocyanin production, and degradation constant of anthocyanins) were related to the kinetics rather than to the yield of the process. The model introduces the concept of primary and secondary metabolism substrate concentration-dependent competition for precursors. Further, the model was able to predict the evolution of the cell system when substrate is scarce, as the value of the different kinetic constants determines the portion of substrate that is used for biomass production, secondary metabolite production, and cell maintenance. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Frog epidermis tyrosinase has been immobilized on Enzacryl-AA (a polyacrylamide-based support) and CPGzirclad-Arylamine (a controlled pore glass support) in order to stabilize the tyrosine hydroxylase activity of the enzyme; in this way, the immobilized enzyme could be used to synthesize L-dopa from L-tyrosine. The activity immobilization yield YIMEact (higher than 86%), coupling efficiency (up to 90%), storage stability (no loss in 120 days), and reaction stability (t1/2 was higher than 20 h in column reactors) were measured for tyrosinase after its immobilization. The results showed a noticeable improvement (in immobilization yield, coupling efficiency, and storage and operational stabilities) over previous reports in which tyrosinase was immobilized for L-dopa production. The activity and stability of immobilized enzyme preparations working in three different reactor types have been compared when used in equivalent conditions with respect to a new proposed parameter of the reactor (Rp), which allows different reactor configurations to be related to the productivity of the reactor during its useful life time. The characteristic reaction inactivation which soluble tyrosinase shows after a short reaction time has been avoided by immobilization, and the stabilization was enhanced by the presence of ascorbate. However, another inactivation process appeared after a prolonged use of the immobilized enzyme. The effects of reactor type and operating conditions on immobilized enzyme activity and stability are discussed.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A design equation is presented for packed-bed reactors containing immobilized enzymes in spherical porous particles with internal diffusion effects and obeying reversible one-intermediate Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The equation is also able to explain irreversible and competitive product inhibition kinetics. It allows the axial substrate profiles to be calculated and the dependence of the effectiveness factor along the reactor length to be continuously evaluated. The design equation was applied to explain the behavior of naringinase immobilized in Glycophase-coated porous glass operating in a packed-bed reactor and hydrolyzing both p-nitrophenyl-α-L-rhamnoside and naringin. The theoretically predicted results were found to fit well with experimentally measured values.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Keywords: Limonin ; Debittering ; Immobilization ; Rhodococcus fascians ; Continuous Stirred Tank ; Reactor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Limonin can be effectively degraded byRhodococcus fascians cells. These bacteria can be entraped in κ-carrageenan, and used in a continuous stirred tank reactor to degrade limonin in a continuous process. The effects of temperature limonin concentration, dilution rate, and aeration on the reactor behaviour have been tested, and the results correlated with changes in limonin conversion, substrate degradation rate, and free and immobilized biomass. Results showed that the immobilized cells were able to debitter limonin-containing media and the immobilized biomass was quite stable throughout the operational conditions tested. A population of free biomass was present in the reactor, the quantity of which was dependent on dilution rate. The immobilized bacteria increased its limonin-degrading capability when the substrate concentration was increased. The aeration was not strictly necessary for limonin degradation. Additionally, the immobilized cells were active and stable for more than 2 months of continuous operation, and were able to recover their limonin-degrading capability when used intermittently. Finally, none of the main components of a juice was noticeably altered during limonin degradation, so the reactor response was good enough to consider its application.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Keywords: Limonin ; Debittering ; Immobilization ; Rhodococcus fascians ; Continuous Stirred Tank ; Reactor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Limonin can be effectively degraded byRhodococcus fascians cells. These bacteria can be entraped in κ-carrageenan, and used in a continuous stirred tank reactor to degrade limonin in a continuous process. The effects of temperature limonin concentration, dilution rate, and aeration on the reactor behaviour have been tested, and the results correlated with changes in limonin conversion, substrate degradation rate, and free and immobilized biomass. Results showed that the immobilized cells were able to debitter limonin-containing media and the immobilized biomass was quite stable throughout the operational conditions tested. A population of free biomass was present in the reactor, the quantity of which was dependent on dilution rate. The immobilized bacteria increased its limonin-degrading capability when the substrate concentration was increased. The aeration was not strictly necessary for limonin degradation. Additionally, the immobilized cells were active and stable for more than 2 months of continuous operation, and were able to recover their limonin-degrading capability when used intermittently. Finally, none of the main components of a juice was noticeably altered during limonin degradation, so the reactor response was good enough to consider its application.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The use of a biological procedure for l-carnitine production as an alternative to chemical methods must be accompanied by an efficient and highly productive reaction system. Continuous l-carnitine production from crotonobetaine was studied in a cell-recycle reactor with Escherichia coli O44 K74 as biocatalyst. This bioreactor, running under the optimum medium composition (25 mM fumarate, 5 g/l peptone), was able to reach a high cell density (26 g dry weight/l) and therefore to obtain high productivity values (6.2 g l-carnitine l−1 h−1). This process showed its feasibility for industrial l-carnitine production. In addition, resting cells maintained in continuous operation, with crotonobetaine as the only medium component, kept their biocatalytic capacity for 4 days, but the biotransformation capacity decreased progressively when this particular method of cultivation was used.
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