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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2005-07-16
    Description: African trypanosomes cause human sleeping sickness and livestock trypanosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. We present the sequence and analysis of the 11 megabase-sized chromosomes of Trypanosoma brucei. The 26-megabase genome contains 9068 predicted genes, including approximately 900 pseudogenes and approximately 1700 T. brucei-specific genes. Large subtelomeric arrays contain an archive of 806 variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes used by the parasite to evade the mammalian immune system. Most VSG genes are pseudogenes, which may be used to generate expressed mosaic genes by ectopic recombination. Comparisons of the cytoskeleton and endocytic trafficking systems with those of humans and other eukaryotic organisms reveal major differences. A comparison of metabolic pathways encoded by the genomes of T. brucei, T. cruzi, and Leishmania major reveals the least overall metabolic capability in T. brucei and the greatest in L. major. Horizontal transfer of genes of bacterial origin has contributed to some of the metabolic differences in these parasites, and a number of novel potential drug targets have been identified.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Berriman, Matthew -- Ghedin, Elodie -- Hertz-Fowler, Christiane -- Blandin, Gaelle -- Renauld, Hubert -- Bartholomeu, Daniella C -- Lennard, Nicola J -- Caler, Elisabet -- Hamlin, Nancy E -- Haas, Brian -- Bohme, Ulrike -- Hannick, Linda -- Aslett, Martin A -- Shallom, Joshua -- Marcello, Lucio -- Hou, Lihua -- Wickstead, Bill -- Alsmark, U Cecilia M -- Arrowsmith, Claire -- Atkin, Rebecca J -- Barron, Andrew J -- Bringaud, Frederic -- Brooks, Karen -- Carrington, Mark -- Cherevach, Inna -- Chillingworth, Tracey-Jane -- Churcher, Carol -- Clark, Louise N -- Corton, Craig H -- Cronin, Ann -- Davies, Rob M -- Doggett, Jonathon -- Djikeng, Appolinaire -- Feldblyum, Tamara -- Field, Mark C -- Fraser, Audrey -- Goodhead, Ian -- Hance, Zahra -- Harper, David -- Harris, Barbara R -- Hauser, Heidi -- Hostetler, Jessica -- Ivens, Al -- Jagels, Kay -- Johnson, David -- Johnson, Justin -- Jones, Kristine -- Kerhornou, Arnaud X -- Koo, Hean -- Larke, Natasha -- Landfear, Scott -- Larkin, Christopher -- Leech, Vanessa -- Line, Alexandra -- Lord, Angela -- Macleod, Annette -- Mooney, Paul J -- Moule, Sharon -- Martin, David M A -- Morgan, Gareth W -- Mungall, Karen -- Norbertczak, Halina -- Ormond, Doug -- Pai, Grace -- Peacock, Chris S -- Peterson, Jeremy -- Quail, Michael A -- Rabbinowitsch, Ester -- Rajandream, Marie-Adele -- Reitter, Chris -- Salzberg, Steven L -- Sanders, Mandy -- Schobel, Seth -- Sharp, Sarah -- Simmonds, Mark -- Simpson, Anjana J -- Tallon, Luke -- Turner, C Michael R -- Tait, Andrew -- Tivey, Adrian R -- Van Aken, Susan -- Walker, Danielle -- Wanless, David -- Wang, Shiliang -- White, Brian -- White, Owen -- Whitehead, Sally -- Woodward, John -- Wortman, Jennifer -- Adams, Mark D -- Embley, T Martin -- Gull, Keith -- Ullu, Elisabetta -- Barry, J David -- Fairlamb, Alan H -- Opperdoes, Fred -- Barrell, Barclay G -- Donelson, John E -- Hall, Neil -- Fraser, Claire M -- Melville, Sara E -- El-Sayed, Najib M -- AI43062/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI043062/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI043062/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Jul 15;309(5733):416-22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. mb4@sanger.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16020726" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/metabolism ; Animals ; Antigenic Variation ; Antigens, Protozoan/chemistry/genetics/immunology ; Carbohydrate Metabolism ; Chromosomes/genetics ; Cytoskeleton/chemistry/genetics/physiology ; Ergosterol/biosynthesis ; Genes, Protozoan ; *Genome, Protozoan ; Glutathione/*analogs & derivatives/metabolism ; Glycosylphosphatidylinositols/biosynthesis ; Humans ; Lipid Metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Transport ; Protozoan Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism ; Pseudogenes ; Purines/metabolism ; Pyrimidines/biosynthesis ; Recombination, Genetic ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Spermidine/*analogs & derivatives/metabolism ; Trypanosoma brucei brucei/chemistry/*genetics/immunology/metabolism ; Trypanosomiasis, African/parasitology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2008-05-20
    Description: Recent data from several organisms indicate that the transcribed portions of genomes are larger and more complex than expected, and that many functional properties of transcripts are based not on coding sequences but on regulatory sequences in untranslated regions or non-coding RNAs. Alternative start and polyadenylation sites and regulation of intron splicing add additional dimensions to the rich transcriptional output. This transcriptional complexity has been sampled mainly using hybridization-based methods under one or few experimental conditions. Here we applied direct high-throughput sequencing of complementary DNAs (RNA-Seq), supplemented with data from high-density tiling arrays, to globally sample transcripts of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, independently from available gene annotations. We interrogated transcriptomes under multiple conditions, including rapid proliferation, meiotic differentiation and environmental stress, as well as in RNA processing mutants to reveal the dynamic plasticity of the transcriptional landscape as a function of environmental, developmental and genetic factors. High-throughput sequencing proved to be a powerful and quantitative method to sample transcriptomes deeply at maximal resolution. In contrast to hybridization, sequencing showed little, if any, background noise and was sensitive enough to detect widespread transcription in 〉90% of the genome, including traces of RNAs that were not robustly transcribed or rapidly degraded. The combined sequencing and strand-specific array data provide rich condition-specific information on novel, mostly non-coding transcripts, untranslated regions and gene structures, thus improving the existing genome annotation. Sequence reads spanning exon-exon or exon-intron junctions give unique insight into a surprising variability in splicing efficiency across introns, genes and conditions. Splicing efficiency was largely coordinated with transcript levels, and increased transcription led to increased splicing in test genes. Hundreds of introns showed such regulated splicing during cellular proliferation or differentiation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wilhelm, Brian T -- Marguerat, Samuel -- Watt, Stephen -- Schubert, Falk -- Wood, Valerie -- Goodhead, Ian -- Penkett, Christopher J -- Rogers, Jane -- Bahler, Jurg -- 077118/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- A6517/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C9546/A6517/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jun 26;453(7199):1239-43. doi: 10.1038/nature07002. Epub 2008 May 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cancer Research UK Fission Yeast Functional Genomics Group, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1HH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18488015" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alternative Splicing/genetics ; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation ; Eukaryotic Cells/*metabolism ; Exons/genetics ; *Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal ; Genes, Fungal/genetics ; Introns/genetics ; *Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; RNA Polymerase II/metabolism ; RNA, Fungal/analysis/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; Schizosaccharomyces/*genetics ; Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins/genetics ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2009-02-13
    Description: Since the completion of the genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 1996 (refs 1, 2), there has been a large increase in complete genome sequences, accompanied by great advances in our understanding of genome evolution. Although little is known about the natural and life histories of yeasts in the wild, there are an increasing number of studies looking at ecological and geographic distributions, population structure and sexual versus asexual reproduction. Less well understood at the whole genome level are the evolutionary processes acting within populations and species that lead to adaptation to different environments, phenotypic differences and reproductive isolation. Here we present one- to fourfold or more coverage of the genome sequences of over seventy isolates of the baker's yeast S. cerevisiae and its closest relative, Saccharomyces paradoxus. We examine variation in gene content, single nucleotide polymorphisms, nucleotide insertions and deletions, copy numbers and transposable elements. We find that phenotypic variation broadly correlates with global genome-wide phylogenetic relationships. S. paradoxus populations are well delineated along geographic boundaries, whereas the variation among worldwide S. cerevisiae isolates shows less differentiation and is comparable to a single S. paradoxus population. Rather than one or two domestication events leading to the extant baker's yeasts, the population structure of S. cerevisiae consists of a few well-defined, geographically isolated lineages and many different mosaics of these lineages, supporting the idea that human influence provided the opportunity for cross-breeding and production of new combinations of pre-existing variations.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2659681/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2659681/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liti, Gianni -- Carter, David M -- Moses, Alan M -- Warringer, Jonas -- Parts, Leopold -- James, Stephen A -- Davey, Robert P -- Roberts, Ian N -- Burt, Austin -- Koufopanou, Vassiliki -- Tsai, Isheng J -- Bergman, Casey M -- Bensasson, Douda -- O'Kelly, Michael J T -- van Oudenaarden, Alexander -- Barton, David B H -- Bailes, Elizabeth -- Nguyen, Alex N -- Jones, Matthew -- Quail, Michael A -- Goodhead, Ian -- Sims, Sarah -- Smith, Frances -- Blomberg, Anders -- Durbin, Richard -- Louis, Edward J -- 067008/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 084507/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- BB/F015216/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G10415/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2009 Mar 19;458(7236):337-41. doi: 10.1038/nature07743. Epub 2009 Feb 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Genetics, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212322" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Genetics, Population ; Genome, Fungal/*genetics ; *Genomics ; Geography ; INDEL Mutation/genetics ; Phenotype ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Saccharomyces/classification/*genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*genetics ; Selection, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-03-09
    Description: Gorillas are humans' closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence consistent with placing the human-chimpanzee and human-chimpanzee-gorilla speciation events at approximately 6 and 10 million years ago. In 30% of the genome, gorilla is closer to human or chimpanzee than the latter are to each other; this is rarer around coding genes, indicating pervasive selection throughout great ape evolution, and has functional consequences in gene expression. A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing. We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species. The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303130/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303130/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Scally, Aylwyn -- Dutheil, Julien Y -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Jordan, Gregory E -- Goodhead, Ian -- Herrero, Javier -- Hobolth, Asger -- Lappalainen, Tuuli -- Mailund, Thomas -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- McCarthy, Shane -- Montgomery, Stephen H -- Schwalie, Petra C -- Tang, Y Amy -- Ward, Michelle C -- Xue, Yali -- Yngvadottir, Bryndis -- Alkan, Can -- Andersen, Lars N -- Ayub, Qasim -- Ball, Edward V -- Beal, Kathryn -- Bradley, Brenda J -- Chen, Yuan -- Clee, Chris M -- Fitzgerald, Stephen -- Graves, Tina A -- Gu, Yong -- Heath, Paul -- Heger, Andreas -- Karakoc, Emre -- Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja -- Laird, Gavin K -- Lunter, Gerton -- Meader, Stephen -- Mort, Matthew -- Mullikin, James C -- Munch, Kasper -- O'Connor, Timothy D -- Phillips, Andrew D -- Prado-Martinez, Javier -- Rogers, Anthony S -- Sajjadian, Saba -- Schmidt, Dominic -- Shaw, Katy -- Simpson, Jared T -- Stenson, Peter D -- Turner, Daniel J -- Vigilant, Linda -- Vilella, Albert J -- Whitener, Weldon -- Zhu, Baoli -- Cooper, David N -- de Jong, Pieter -- Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T -- Eichler, Evan E -- Flicek, Paul -- Goldman, Nick -- Mundy, Nicholas I -- Ning, Zemin -- Odom, Duncan T -- Ponting, Chris P -- Quail, Michael A -- Ryder, Oliver A -- Searle, Stephen M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Wilson, Richard K -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Rogers, Jane -- Tyler-Smith, Chris -- Durbin, Richard -- 062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 075491/Z/04/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077009/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077198/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089066/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 15603/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 202218/European Research Council/International -- A15603/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- G0501331/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701805/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- WT062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077009/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077198/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT089066/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Mar 7;483(7388):169-75. doi: 10.1038/nature10842.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22398555" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation ; *Genetic Speciation ; Genetic Variation/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomics ; Gorilla gorilla/*genetics ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Pongo/genetics ; Proteins/genetics ; Sequence Alignment ; Species Specificity ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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