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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-0959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Ice shelves consist of two layers, an upper layer of meteoric ice nourished by the flow from the connected inland ice and precipitation, and a lower layer of marine ice that is built by the melting and freezing processes at the ice-ocean interface and the accretion of frazil ice from the underlying ocean. The governing thermomechanical equations in the two layers are formulated as are the boundary and transition conditions that apply at the free surface, the material interface between the meteoric and the marine ice and the ice-ocean interface. The equations comprise in the bulk mass balances for the ice and the salt water (in marine ice), momentum balance and energy balance equations, and at the boundaries kinematic equations as well as jump conditions of mass, momentum and energy. The side boundary conditions involve a prescription of the mass flow along the grounding line from the inland ice and a kinematic law describing the mass loss by calving along the floating ice-shelf front. An appropriate scaling, in which the shallowness of the ice shelves is used, gives rise to the development of a perturbation scheme for the solution of the three-dimensional equations. Its lowest-order approximation – the shallow-shelf approximation (SSA) – shows the ice flow to be predominantly horizontal with a velocity field independent of depth, but strongly depth-dependent temperature and stress distributions. This zeroth order shallow-shelf approximation excludes the treatment of ice rumples, ice rises and the vicinity of the grounding line, but higher-order equations may to within second-order accuracy in the perturbation parameter accommodate for these more complicated effects. The scaling introduced finally leads to a vertical integrated system of non-linear partial integro-differential equations describing the ice flow and evolution equation for temperature and the free surfaces.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We study stability properties of rapid granular flows that are described by the balance laws of mass, momentum and fluctuation energy with phenomenological relationships based upon dimensional arguments [12, 13]. Small disturbances propagating perpendicular to the shear plane are only studied. Calculations show that such flows are stable at small free path lengths of the granules but unstable if free path lengths are large.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-0959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Three new experiments are described which exhibit strong pattern formation in the deposits left by successive granular avalanches. At low flow rates continuous deposition, erosion or rotation gives rise to intermittent avalanche release. Once in motion kinetic sieving of a bi-disperse granular mixture creates a two-layer shear band in which the larger particles overlie the smaller particles. When this is brought abruptly to rest by the upslope propagation of a shock wave a pair of str ipes is “frozen” into the deposited material. Successive releases create a large scale pattern, which strongly reflects the history of the granular flow. At faster deposition, erosion and rotation rates a new flow regime is entered in which intermittency and shock formation ceases, and the associated patterns change.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Chromosomes from rat kangaroo (PTK) and chinese hamster (CHV 79) cells have been prepared for quantitative flow-cytometric analysis. The preparation time was optimized down to 30 (PTK) and 40 min (CHV 79). DAPI was used as a AT-sensitive fluorescent dye to stain for monoparameter DNA measurements. Simultaneous two-parameter DNA-protein analysis was carried out with DAPI and SR 101 (as a general protein fluorochrome) in combination. The karyotype of the PTK cells with 13 (14) chromosomes was separated into 10 DNA peaks. The X-chromosome bearing the nucleolus organizer region generates a distinct peak. The karyotype of the CHV 79 cells with 22 chromosomes was separated into 15 peaks. The DNA profile obtained indicates a geometric grading of the chromosomal amount of AT components in the karyotype of this particular cell line. The simultaneous DNA-protein analysis performed show enough sensitivity of the instrument utilizing high power UV excitation illumination to discriminate the two color emission consisting of blue (DAPI) and red (SR 101) fluorescence. Color overlapping could be completely avoided. Additionally, the quality (number, location, and resolution of peaks) of the DNA distribution was not influenced by the simultaneous application of a second fluorescent stain. Fluorescence activated electronic sorting applied on chromosomal fluorescence distributions providing purified fractions of chromosomes for subsequent biochemical and biological determinations is discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The micronucleus test is a cytogenetic method for the screening of mutagens and carcinogens which exhibit clastogenic mechanisms of action. After application of clastogenic agents chromosomal fragments or even whole chromsomes can remain as conspicuous structures (micronuclei) in a small fraction of anucleated polychromatic erythrocytes which can be visually scored using a microscope following staining with May-Grünwald-Giemsa solutions. These time-consuming, painstaking, and tedious manual evaluations are often sources of unreliability and uncertainty. Here, a fluorescence technique is presented which applies DNA and protein fluorochromes to discriminate normal anucleated erythrocytes from micronucleated erythrocytes using a fluorescence microscope. This method is particularly tailored to be applied to flow cytometric instrumentation. Data obtained manually and automatically in flow show a strong linear correlation with high significance (r=0.96) as far as the percentage of micronucleated erythrocytes as an indicator for the mutagenicity of a given drug is concerned. These results have been obtained by means of the established clastogens cyclophosphamide and mitomycin C.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The chromosomes of WALKER (W-256) carcinoma cells have been separated into different DNA subclasses using DAPI for quantitative DNA staining and laser flow cytometry. The submetacentric marker chromosome could be isolated and its DNA content was determined to be 1.3 pg. One microgram marker DNA was obtained after separation of about 750 000 marker chromosomes by means of electronic flow sorting. The chromosomal composition of sorted fractions was analyzed by microscopy following banding of sorted chromosomes. The average morphological purity obtained was about 83%.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A combination of cytometric (chromosome sorting), molecular (dot blot hybridization using radioactive and/or biotinylated DNA probes) and cytogenetic (G-banding) evaluation is described which allows the rapid identification of single copy and repetitive viral integrates and their assignment to chromosome groups or even individual chromosomes. In the case of Chinese hamster cell line CO 631 it could be demonstrated that SV40 DNA was solely integrated into a submetacentric marker chromosome. Such a cytometric/molecular/cytogenetic “identogram” may prove to be a useful tool in many areas of cell and tumor biology. Furthermore, amounts of chromosomes sufficient for analysis as well as subsequent cloning experiments can be accumulated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Oceanography: general (limnology; numerical modeling) ; Oceanography: physical (currents)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We study how a coastal obstruction (peninsula or coastal island) affects the three-dimensional barotropic currents in an oblong rectangular basin with variable bathymetry across the basin width. The transverse depth profile is asymmetric and the peninsula or island lies in the middle of the long side of the rectangle. A semi-spectral model for the Boussinesq-approximated shallow water equations, developed in Haidvogel et al. and altered for semi-implicit numerical integration in time in Wang and Hutter, is used to find the steady barotropic state circulation pattern to external winds. The structural (qualitative) rearrangements and quanti2tative features of the current pattern are studied under four principal wind directions and different lengths of the peninsula and its inclination relative to the shore. The essentially non-linear relationships of the water flux between the two sub-basins (formed by the obstructing peninsula) and the corresponding cross-sectional area left open are found and analysed. It is further analysed whether the depth-integrated model, usually adopted by others, is meaningful when applied to the water exchange problems. The flow through the channel narrowing is quantitatively estimated and compared with the three-dimensional results. The dynamics of the vortex structure and the identification of the up-welling/down-welling zones around the obstruction are discussed in detail. The influence of the transformation of the peninsula into a coastal island on the global basin circulation is considered as are the currents in the channel. The geometric and physical reasons for the anisotropy of the current structure which prevail through all obtained solutions are also discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The simultaneous measurement of protein and DNA content of yeast on a cell by cell basis is described. A problem associated with partially overlapping fluorescence emission bands of the two fluorochromes is discussed. The rapid flow cytometric assay will be useful to monitor cell growth in industrial fermentation processes.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-0673
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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