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  • 1
    Call number: AWI A3-03-0013
    In: Geophysical monograph
    Description / Table of Contents: In The North Atlantic Oscillation: climatic significance and environmental impact, leading atmospheric scientists, oceanographers, paleoclimatologists, and biologists offer a focused, state-of-the-art assessment of current understanding of the most prominent and recurrent pattern of atmospheric variability over the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Of special concern are the processes that govern North Atlantic Oscillation variability, how the phenomenon has varied in the past or will vary in the future, whether it is at all predictable, and the impact of the North Atlantic Oscilation on marine, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: VIII, 279 S. : graph. Darst., Kt.
    ISBN: 0875909949
    Series Statement: Geophysical monograph 134
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Large changes in the wintertime atmospheric circulation have occurred over the past two decades over the ocean basins of the Northern Hemisphere, and these changes have had a profound effect on regional distributions of surface temperature and precipitation. The changes over the North Pacific have been well documented and have contributed to increases in temperatures across Alaska and much of western North America and to decreases in sea surface temperatures over the central North Pacific. The variations over the North Atlantic are related to changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Over the past 130 years, the NAO has exhibited considerable variability at quasi-biennial and quasi-decadal time scales, and the latter have become especially pronounced the second half of this century. Since 1980, the NAO has tended to remain in one extreme phase and has accounted for a substantial part of the observed wintertime surface warming over Europe and downstream over Eurasia and cooling in the northwest Atlantic. Anomalies in precipitation, including dry wintertime conditions over southern Europe and the Mediterranean and wetter-than-normal conditions over northern Europe and Scandinavia since 1980, are also linked to the behavior of the NAO. Changes in the monthly mean flow over the Atlantic are accompanied by a northward shift in the storm tracks and associated synoptic eddy activity, and these changes help to reinforce and maintain the anomalous mean circulation in the upper troposphere. It is important that studies of trends in local climate records, such as those from high elevation sites, recognize the presence of strong regional patterns of change associated with phenomena like the NAO.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Climate dynamics 11 (1995), S. 25-50 
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The simulated mean January and July climates of four versions of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM) are compared. The models include standard configurations of CCM1 and CCM2, as well as two widely-cited research versions, the Global Environmental and Ecological Simulation of Interactive Systems (GENESIS) model and the Climate Sensitivity and Carbon Dioxide (CSC02) model. Each CCM version was integrated for 10 years with a horizontal spectral resolution of rhomboidal 15 (R15). Additionally, the standard T42 version of CCM2 was integrated for 20 years. Monthly mean, annually repeating climatological sea surface temperatures provided a lower boundary condition for each of the model simulations. The CCM troposphere is generally too cold, especially in the polar upper troposphere in the summer hemisphere. This is least severe in CCM2 and most pronounced in CCM1. CSC02 is an exception with a substantial warm bias, especially in the tropical upper troposphere. Corresponding biases are evident in atmospheric moisture. The overall superior CCM2 thermodynamic behavior is principally compromised by a large warm and moist bias over the Northern Hemisphere middle and high latitudes during summer. Differences between the simulated and observed stationary wave patterns reveal sizeable amplitude errors and phase shifts in all CCM versions. A common problem evident in the upper troposphere is an erroneous cyclone pair that straddles the equatorial central Pacific in January. The overall January stationary wave error pattern in CCM2 and CSCO2 is suggestive of a reverse Pacific-North American teleconnection pattern originating from the tropical central Pacific. During July, common regional biases include simulated North Pacific troughs that are stronger and shifted to the west of observations, and each model overestimates the strength of the anticyclone pair associated with the summer monsoon circulation over India. The simulated major convergence and divergence centers tend to be very localized in all CCM versions, with a tendency in each model for the maximum divergent centers to be unrelistically concentrated in monsoon regions and tied to regions of steep orography. Maxima in CCM-simulated precipitation correspond to the simulated outflow maxima and are generally larger than observational estimates, and the associated atmospheric latent heating appears to contribute to the stationary wave errors. Comparisons of simulated radiative quantities to satellite measurements reveal that the overall CCM2 radiative balance is better than in the other CCM versions. An error common to all models is that too much solar radiation is absorbed in the middle latitudes during summer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Climate dynamics 9 (1994), S. 303-319 
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Considerable evidence has emerged of a substantial decade-long change in the north Pacific atmosphere and ocean lasting from about 1976 to 1988. Observed significant changes in the atmospheric circulation throughout the troposphere revealed a deeper and eastward shifted Aleutian low pressure system in the winter half year which advected warmer and moister air along the west coast of North America and into Alaska and colder air over the north Pacific. Consequently, there were increases in temperatures and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the west coast of North America and Alaska but decreases in SSTs over the central north Pacific, as well as changes in coastal rainfall and streamflow, and decreases in sea ice in the Bering Sea. Associated changes occurred in the surface wind stress, and, by inference, in the Sverdrup transport in the north Pacific Ocean. Changes in the monthly mean flow were accompanied by a southward shift in the storm tracks and associated synoptic eddy activity and in the surface ocean sensible and latent heat fluxes. In addition to the changes in the physical environment, the deeper Aleutian low increased the nutrient supply as seen through increases in total chlorophyll in the water column, phytoplankton and zooplankton. These changes, along with the altered ocean currents and temperatures, changed the migration patterns and increased the stock of many fish species. A north Pacific (NP) index is defined to measure the decadal variations, and the temporal variability of the index is explored on daily, annual, interannual and decadal time scales. The dominant atmosphere-ocean relation in the north Pacific is one where atmospheric changes lead SSTs by one to two months. However, strong ties are revealed with events in the tropical Pacific, with changes in tropical Pacific SSTs leading SSTs in the north Pacific by three months. Changes in the storm tracks in the north Pacific help to reinforce and maintain the anomalous circulation in the upper troposphere. A hypothesis is put forward outlining the tropical and extratropical realtionships which stresses the role of tropical forcing but with important feedbacks in the extratropics that serve to emphasize the decadal relative to interannual time scales. The Pacific decadal timescale variations are linked to recent changes in the frequency and intensity of El Niño versus La Niña events but whether climate change associated with ”global warming" is a factor is an open question.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Climate dynamics 9 (1994), S. 303-319 
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Considerable evidence has emerged of a substantial decade-long change in the north Pacific atmosphere and ocean lasting from about 1976 to 1988. Observed significant changes in the atmospheric circulation throughout the troposphere revealed a deeper and eastward shifted Aleutian low pressure system in the winter half year which advected warmer and moister air along the west coast of North America and into Alaska and colder air over the north Pacific. Consequently, there were increases in temperatures and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the west coast of North America and Alaska but decreases in SSTs over the central north Pacific, as well as changes in coastal rainfall and streamflow, and decreases in sea ice in the Bering Sea. Associated changes occurred in the surface wind stress, and, by inference, in the Sverdrup transport in the north Pacific Ocean. Changes in the monthly mean flow were accompanied by a southward shift in the storm tracks and associated synoptic eddy activity and in the surface ocean sensible and latent heat fluxes. In addition to the changes in the physical environment, the deeper Aleutian low increased the nutrient supply as seen through increases in total chlorophyll in the water column, phytoplankton and zooplankton. These changes, along with the altered ocean currents and temperatures, changed the migration patterns and increased the stock of many fish species. A north Pacific (NP) index is defined to measure the decadal variations, and the temporal variability of the index is explored on daily, annual, interannual and decadal time scales. The dominant atmosphere-ocean relation in the north Pacific is one where atmospheric changes lead SSTs by one to two months. However, strong ties are revealed with events in the tropical Pacific, with changes in tropical Pacific SSTs leading SSTs in the north Pacific by three months. Changes in the storm tracks in the north Pacific help to reinforce and maintain the anomalous circulation in the upper troposphere. A hypothesis is put forward outlining the tropical and extratropical realtionships which stresses the role of tropical forcing but with important feed-backs in the extratropics that serve to emphasize the decadal relative to interannual time scales. The Pacific decadal timescale variations are linked to recent changes in the frequency and intensity of El Niño versus La Nina events but whether climate change associated with “global warming” is a factor is an open question.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 19 (2006): 5100–5121, doi:10.1175/JCLI3902.1.
    Description: Three interrelated climate phenomena are at the center of the Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Atlantic research: tropical Atlantic variability (TAV), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC). These phenomena produce a myriad of impacts on society and the environment on seasonal, interannual, and longer time scales through variability manifest as coherent fluctuations in ocean and land temperature, rainfall, and extreme events. Improved understanding of this variability is essential for assessing the likely range of future climate fluctuations and the extent to which they may be predictable, as well as understanding the potential impact of human-induced climate change. CLIVAR is addressing these issues through prioritized and integrated plans for short-term and sustained observations, basin-scale reanalysis, and modeling and theoretical investigations of the coupled Atlantic climate system and its links to remote regions. In this paper, a brief review of the state of understanding of Atlantic climate variability and achievements to date is provided. Considerable discussion is given to future challenges related to building and sustaining observing systems, developing synthesis strategies to support understanding and attribution of observed change, understanding sources of predictability, and developing prediction systems in order to meet the scientific objectives of the CLIVAR Atlantic program.
    Keywords: Atlantic Ocean ; Climate prediction ; Variational studies ; Tropical variability ; North Atlantic Oscillation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 25 (2012): 5153–5172, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00463.1.
    Description: Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is documented in the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) preindustrial control simulation that uses nominal 1° horizontal resolution in all its components. AMOC shows a broad spectrum of low-frequency variability covering the 50–200-yr range, contrasting sharply with the multidecadal variability seen in the T85 × 1 resolution CCSM3 present-day control simulation. Furthermore, the amplitude of variability is much reduced in CCSM4 compared to that of CCSM3. Similarities as well as differences in AMOC variability mechanisms between CCSM3 and CCSM4 are discussed. As in CCSM3, the CCSM4 AMOC variability is primarily driven by the positive density anomalies at the Labrador Sea (LS) deep-water formation site, peaking 2 yr prior to an AMOC maximum. All processes, including parameterized mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, play a role in the creation of salinity anomalies that dominate these density anomalies. High Nordic Sea densities do not necessarily lead to increased overflow transports because the overflow physics is governed by source and interior region density differences. Increased overflow transports do not lead to a higher AMOC either but instead appear to be a precursor to lower AMOC transports through enhanced stratification in LS. This has important implications for decadal prediction studies. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is significantly correlated with the positive boundary layer depth and density anomalies prior to an AMOC maximum. This suggests a role for NAO through setting the surface flux anomalies in LS and affecting the subpolar gyre circulation strength.
    Description: The CCSM project is supported by NSF and the Office of Science (BER) of the U.S. Department of Energy. SGY and YOK were supported by the NOAA Climate Program Office under Climate Variability and Predictability Program Grants NA09OAR4310163 and NA10OAR4310202, respectively.
    Description: 2013-02-01
    Keywords: Meridional overturning circulation ; Coupled models ; Ocean models ; Oceanic variability
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 386 (1997), S. 164-167 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The relative merits of the surface and MSU temperature records have been a matter of spirited debate1. One often overlooked issue is that there is no single satellite record, and that different tropospheric measures of temperature from the MSUs contain different trends and different error ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Climate dynamics 11 (1995), S. 25-50 
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract.  The simulated mean January and July climates of four versions of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM) are compared. The models include standard configurations of CCM1 and CCM2, as well as two widely-cited research versions, the Global Environmental and Ecological Simulation of Interactive Systems (GENESIS) model and the Climate Sensitivity and Carbon Dioxide (CSCO2) model. Each CCM version was integrated for 10 years with a horizontal spectral resolution of rhomboidal 15 (R15). Additionally, the standard T42 version of CCM2 was integrated for 20 years. Monthly mean, annually repeating climatological sea surface temperatures provided a lower boundary condition for each of the model simulations. The CCM troposphere is generally too cold, especially in the polar upper troposphere in the summer hemisphere. This is least severe in CCM2 and most pronounced in CCM1. CSCO2 is an exception with a substantial warm bias, especially in the tropical upper troposphere. Corresponding biases are evident in atmospheric moisture. The overall superior CCM2 thermodynamic behavior is principally compromised by a large warm and moist bias over the Northern Hemisphere middle and high latitudes during summer. Differences between the simulated and observed stationary wave patterns reveal sizeable amplitude errors and phase shifts in all CCM versions. A common problem evident in the upper troposphere is an erroneous cyclone pair that straddles the equatorial central Pacific in January. The overall January stationary wave error pattern in CCM2 and CSCO2 is suggestive of a reverse Pacific-North American teleconnection pattern originating from the tropical central Pacific. During July, common regional biases include simulated North Pacific troughs that are stronger and shifted to the west of observations, and each model overestimates the strength of the anticyclone pair associated with the summer monsoon circulation over India. The simulated major convergence and divergence centers tend to be very localized in all CCM versions, with a tendency in each model for the maximum divergent centers to be unrelistically concentrated in monsoon regions and tied to regions of steep orography. Maxima in CCM-simulated precipitation correspond to the simulated outflow maxima and are generally larger than observational estimates, and the associated atmospheric latent heating appears to contribute to the stationary wave errors. Comparisons of simulated radiative quantities to satellite measurements reveal that the overall CCM2 radiative balance is better than in the other CCM versions. An error common to all models is that too much solar radiation is absorbed in the middle latitudes during summer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In:  Science, 292 (5514). pp. 90-92.
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Evidence is presented that North Atlantic climate change since 1950 is linked to a progressive warming of tropical sea surface temperatures, especially over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The ocean changes alter the pattern and magnitude of tropical rainfall and atmospheric heating, the atmospheric response to which includes the spatial structure of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The slow, tropical ocean warming has thus forced a commensurate trend toward one extreme phase of the NAO during the past half-century.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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