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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Clastic sedimentary rocks, deposited on eastern North America in response to the Taconian Orogeny, commonly have Sm/Nd isotope relationships indicating substantial isotope disturbance near or subsequent to the time of sedimentation that may be associated with severe depletion in light rare earth elements (LREE). Affected units [Normanskill Formation (Austin Glen and Pawlet Members), Frankfort Formation and Perry Mountain Formation] are widely separated both geographically (western New York to western Maine) and stratigraphically (Middle Ordovician to Silurian). A model is proposed for the most likely explanation of the observed REE and Sm/Nd isotope relationships involving a two-stage process. In the first stage, REE are redistributed on a mineralogical scale (dissolution/precipitation on a sample scale) often with the involvement of REE-enriched trace phases such as apatite and monazite. This stage typically takes place during diagenesis but may also take place later during metamorphism and/or recent weathering, and results in isotope re-equilibration on a sample scale. The second stage occurs when one or more of these phases is redissolved and REE are transported on large advective scales. Where LREE-enriched phases are involved, this gives rise to LREE depletion in whole rocks. The timing of this second stage cannot be constrained from Sm/Nd isotope data and may take place at any time subsequent to the isotope re-equilibration. Such complex histories of REE redistribution may result in serious errors in estimating Nd model ages but not in estimating the Nd isotope composition at the age of sedimentation. Thus, Sm/Nd ratios even of unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks have to be carefully evaluated before the calculation of depleted mantle model ages for the provenance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
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    International Association of Sedimentologists
    In:  Sedimentology, 51 (4). pp. 885-897.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: Clastic sedimentary rocks, deposited on eastern North America in response to the Taconian Orogeny, commonly have Sm/Nd isotope relationships indicating substantial isotope disturbance near or subsequent to the time of sedimentation that may be associated with severe depletion in light rare earth elements (LREE). Affected units [Normanskill Formation (Austin Glen and Pawlet Members), Frankfort Formation and Perry Mountain Formation] are widely separated both geographically (western New York to western Maine) and stratigraphically (Middle Ordovician to Silurian). A model is proposed for the most likely explanation of the observed REE and Sm/Nd isotope relationships involving a two-stage process. In the first stage, REE are redistributed on a mineralogical scale (dissolution/precipitation on a sample scale) often with the involvement of REE-enriched trace phases such as apatite and monazite. This stage typically takes place during diagenesis but may also take place later during metamorphism and/or recent weathering, and results in isotope re-equilibration on a sample scale. The second stage occurs when one or more of these phases is redissolved and REE are transported on large advective scales. Where LREE-enriched phases are involved, this gives rise to LREE depletion in whole rocks. The timing of this second stage cannot be constrained from Sm/Nd isotope data and may take place at any time subsequent to the isotope re-equilibration. Such complex histories of REE redistribution may result in serious errors in estimating Nd model ages but not in estimating the Nd isotope composition at the age of sedimentation. Thus, Sm/Nd ratios even of unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks have to be carefully evaluated before the calculation of depleted mantle model ages for the provenance.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
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    Geological Association of Canada
    In:  In: Geochemistry of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks: evolutionary considerations to mineral deposit-forming environments. , ed. by Lentz, D. R. Geological Association of Canada Short Course Notes, 16 . Geological Association of Canada, Toronto.
    Publication Date: 2017-04-11
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar age of 4.21 +/- 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced 3He, 21Ne, and 36Ar yield concordant surface exposure ages of 78 T 30 million years. Surface exposure occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent exposure by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration; Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN21533 , Science; 343; 6169
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Experimental data for alteration of synthetic Martian basalts at pH=0-1 indicate that chemical fractionations at low pH are vastly different from those observed during terrestrial weathering. Rock analyses from Gusev crater are well described by the relationships apparent from low pH experimental alteration data. A model for rock surface alteration is developed which indicates that a leached alteration zone is present on rock surfaces at Gusev. This zone is not chemically fractionated to a large degree from the underlying rock interior, indicating that the rock surface alteration process has occurred at low fluid-to-rock ratio. The geochemistry of natural rock surfaces analyzed by APXS is consistent with a mixture between adhering soil/dust and the leached alteration zone. The chemistry of rock surfaces analyzed after brushing with the RAT is largely representative of the leached alteration zone. The chemistry of rock surfaces analyzed after grinding with the RAT is largely representative of the interior of the rock, relatively unaffected by the alteration process occurring at the rock surface. Elemental measurements from the Spirit, Opportunity, Pathfinder and Viking 1 landing sites indicate that soil chemistry from widely separated locations is consistent with the low-pH, low fluid to rock ratio alteration relationships developed for Gusev rocks. Soils are affected principally by mobility of FeO and MgO, consistent with alteration of olivine-bearing basalt and subsequent precipitation of FeO and MgO bearing secondary minerals as the primary control on soil geochemistry.
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Alpha Particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) on the Curiosity rover in Gale Crater [1] is the 4th such instrument to have landed on Mars [2]. Along the rover's traverse down-section toward Glenelg (through sol 102), the APXS has examined four rocks and one soil [3]. Gale rocks are geochemically diverse and expand the range of Martian rock compositions to include high volatile and alkali contents (up to 3.0 wt% K2O) with high Fe and Mn (up to 29.2% FeO*).
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-27938 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 18-22 Mar. 2013; TheWoodlands, TX; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission is focused on assessing the past or present habitability of Mars, through interrogation of environment and environmental records at the Curiosity rover field site in Gale crater. The MSL team has two methods available to collect, process and deliver samples to onboard analytical laboratories, the Chemistry and Mineralogy instrument (CheMin) and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. One approach obtains samples by drilling into a rock, the other uses a scoop to collect loose regolith fines. Scooping was planned to be first method performed on Mars because materials could be readily scooped multiple times and used to remove any remaining, minute terrestrial contaminants from the sample processing system, the Collection and Handling for In-Situ Martian Rock Analysis (CHIMRA). Because of this cleaning effort, the ideal first material to be scooped would consist of fine to very fine sand, like the interior of the Serpent Dune studied by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit team in 2004 [1]. The MSL team selected a linear eolian deposit in the lee of a group of cobbles they named Rocknest (Fig. 1) as likely to be similar to Serpent Dune. Following the definitions in Chapter 13 of Bagnold [2], the deposit is termed a sand shadow. The scooping campaign occurred over approximately 6 weeks in October and November 2012. To support these activities, the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) acquired images for engineering support/assessment and scientific inquiry.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-27937 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 18-22 Mar. 2013; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold, paleoclimates and rapid erosion and deposition. The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions. Analyses of diagenetic features (including concretions, raised ridges, and fractures) at high spatial resolution indicate that they are composed of iron- and halogen-rich components, magnesium-iron-chlorine-rich components, and hydrated calcium sulfates, respectively. Composition of a cross-cutting dike-like feature is consistent with sedimentary intrusion. The geochemistry of these sedimentary rocks provides further evidence for diverse depositional and diagenetic sedimentary environments during the early history of Mars.
    Keywords: Exobiology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN21724 , Science (ISSN 0036-8075) (e-ISSN 1095-9203); 343; 6169; 1244734
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or trade name: Teflon by Dupont Co.) has been detected in rocks drilled during terrestrial testing of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) drilling hardware. The PTFE in sediments is a wear product of the seals used in the Drill Bit Assemblies (DBAs). It is expected that the drill assembly on the MSL flight model will also shed Teflon particles into drilled samples. One of the primary goals of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on MSL is to test for the presence of martian organics in samples. Complications introduced by the potential presence of PTFE in drilled samples to the SAM evolved gas analysis (EGA or pyrolysisquadrupole mass spectrometry, pyr-QMS) and pyrolysis- gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Pyr- GCMS) experiments was investigated.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN7818 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 18-22 Mar. 2014; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: key challenge in assessing the habitability of martian environments is the detection of organic matter - a requirement of all life as we know it. The Curiosity rover, which landed on August 6, 2012 in Gale Crater of Mars, includes the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite capable of in situ analysis of gaseous organic components thermally evolved from sediment samples collected, sieved, and delivered by the MSL rover. On Sol 94, SAM received its first solid sample: scooped sediment from Rocknest that was sieved to 〈150 m particle size. Multiple 10-40 mg portions of the scoop #5 sample were delivered to SAM for analyses. Prior to their introduction, a blank (empty cup) analysis was performed. This blank served 1) to clean the analytical instrument of SAMinternal materials that accumulated in the gas processing system since integration into the rover, and 2) to characterize the background signatures of SAM. Both the blank and the Rocknest samples showed the presence of hydrocarbon components.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: JSC-CN-27927 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 18-22 Mar. 2013; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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