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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Biochemistry 12 (1973), S. 3045-3050 
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Food microstructure ; Food emulsions ; Micelles ; Casein ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Manufacture of food products with desired texture and stability increasingly benefits from an understanding of the food microstructure. Freeze-fracture is advantageous in gaining this understanding because it avoids alterations of hydration, retains fat, and maximally preserves air cells. This paper reviews insightful applications of freeze-fracture to various food crystals, colloids, gels, emulsions, and foams.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 149 (1976), S. 33-51 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mature annelid cuticle contains orthogonally oriented collagen in a matrix capped superficially by a dense epicuticle with external corpuscles. The underlying epidermis is a simple columnar epithelium with two major cell types, mucous-secreting cells which secrete through channels in the cuticle to the exterior of the worm, and “supportive” cells which presumably produce and increase the cuticle by secreting into it.The structures of supportive cells, previously interpreted as specialized for establishing interfibrillar collagen order, are revealed by glutaraldehyde fixation as common cellular components without the qualities deemed useful to align collagen. Cell processes which penetrate and sometimes pass completely through the cuticle are not stable, not in geometric order, and lack cilia-like structure. Cilia, unlike the ubiquitous cellular processes, are highly restricted to regions of the epidermis with specialized functions. Cellular control, or other control, of collagen fibrillogenesis remains unestablished.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 149 (1976), S. 53-71 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Appearance of collagen fibrils in the cuticle was seen by electron microscopy to be preceded by fonnation of a finely filamentous matrix material. At first, the fine filaments of the matrix are unorganized. However, signs of orthogonal ordering soon appear in the most superficial portion of the cuticle, and subsequently appear more basally and closer to the underlying epidermis. Meanwhile, fibrils of different staining properties and identifiable as collagen begin to be deposited in the superficial portion of the cuticle, the same region which first showed organized fine filaments. Then, like the fine filaments before them, the collagen fibrils polymerize more basally. Collagen appears to polymerize on the preformed skeleton of fine filaments as though the fine filaments caused the collagen to assemble. Neither the polymerization nor ordering of collagen fibrils seems to require direct cellular intervention but occur first in that portion of the cuticle which is furthest away from the underlying epidermis. The fine filaments may be self ordering, extracellular macromolecules which in turn determine the polymerization of collagen fibrils.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Supramolecular Structure 7 (1977), S. 339-351 
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: aggregation factor ; proteoglycans ; polysaccharides ; aggregation factor ; glycoconjugates ; glycoproteins ; sponges ; Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Aggregation factor, the macromolecular complex which mediates species-specific aggreagation of dissociated sponge cells, was isolated from several species, partially characterized, and visualized by electron microscopy. All factors were large fibrous complexes with a backbone and side chains or arms. In some factors, the backbone is linear. In others it is circular and the complex appears as a sunburst with arms extending like rays from the circle. The size and location of the polysaccharide chains have been studied using purified preparations of Microciona prolifera. “Sunbursts” treated with ethylenediaminetraacetate (EDTA) for 4 weeks at 0°C dissociate into 3 protein- and polysaccharide-containing components. Sodium dodecyl sulfate does not cause the sunburst to dissociate nor does it inhibit dissociation in the presence of EDTA suggesting that dissociation is not due to hydrolytic enzymes. The dissociation products were tractionated on a 977-Å pore size micropore glass column. Fifteen percent of the material is excluded and appears in the electron microscope as the central circle of the sunburst. Digestion of the circles with 10-3 M dithiothreitol (DTT) and 0.5 mg/ml proteinase K for 72 h at 37°C produces 2 polysaccharide chanis of 65,000 and 6,000 daltons as fractionated and sized on a 233-Å pore size micropore glass column using Pharmacia dextrans as standards. The included fractions of the EDTA-treated material are subunits of the arms which contain 70% of the polysaccharide. A single polysaccharide of 6,000 daltons as measured on 233-Å size glass beads and Sephadex G-75 is released from these subunits by proteinase digestion. Pharmacia dextrans are used as standard on both columns. We calculate that there would be four 65,000-dalton chains and one hundred 6,000-dalton chains per circle and fifty 6,000-dalton chains per arm. The third component of the EDTA-treated preparation is partially included on the column. It appears as linear fibrils in the electron microscope and contains polydisperse polysaccharides of several-hundred-thousand daltons. It may be an impurity since there is apparently less than 1 of the large polysaccharide chains per sunburst.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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