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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Johnson Space Center, The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, Volume 1; p 69-73
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2006-02-14
    Description: In the past, flight experiments to define the meteoroid environment near the Earth and in interplanetary space were undertaken. The effectiveness of meteoroid bumpers was investigated. These flight experiments were aboard Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Explorer 46. Hypervelocity impact tests were conducted in the laboratory to study protective structures and the composition of meteoroids from the hundreds of meteor spectra obtained. It was also found that manmade debris presented a similar hazard to spacecraft near the Earth. An assessment of that hazard is made in this paper. An analysis of the collision probability problem with much attention given to the population of small untrackable fragments created during explosions is presented.
    Keywords: ASTRONAUTICS (GENERAL)
    Type: NASA. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Orbital Debris; p 45-68
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  • 3
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2006-02-14
    Description: The specific objectives of this experiment are to establish the population and size distribution of meteoroids in the mass range from 10 to the minus 10 power to 10 to the minus 4 power G, to establish the current population of man-made debris in the same mass range, and to obtain data on the physical properties (composition and density) of meteoroids.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF); p 136-137
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: Experimental data are presented which show that hypervelocity impact spallation and penetration failures of a single solid aluminum plate and of a solid aluminum plate spaced a distance behind a Whipple meteor bumper may be retarded by replacing the solid aluminum plate with a laminated plate. Four sets of experiments were conducted. The first set of experiments was conducted with projectile mass and velocity held constant and with polycarbonate cylinders impacted into single plates of different construction. The second set of experiments was done with single plates of various construction and aluminum spherical projectiles of similar mass but different velocities. These two experiments showed that a laminated plate of aluminum and polycarbonate or aluminum and methyl methacrylate could prevent spallation and penetration failures with a lower areal density than either an all-aluminum laminated plate or a solid aluminum plate. The aluminum laminated plate was in turn superior to the solid aluminum plate in resisting spallation and penetration failures. In addition, through an example of 6061-T6 aluminum and methyl methacrylate, it is shown that a laminated structure ballistically superior to its parent materials may be built. The last two sets of experiments were conducted using bumper-protected main walls of solid aluminum and of laminated aluminum and polycarbonate. Again, under hypervelocity impact conditions, the laminated main walls were superior to the solid aluminum main walls in retarding spallation and penetration failures.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TN-D-6989 , L-8444
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: Penetration flux calculation for multiwall structure on Lunar Orbiter spacecraft missions
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TN-D-5455
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: Journal of radiation research (ISSN 0449-3060); Volume 43 Suppl; S41-5
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The detection of particles near the rings of Saturn by the meteoroid detection instrument on board Pioneer 11 is discussed. The instrument consists of 234 penetration detectors, distributed between two independent data channels each of which is designed to become inhibited for a period of 77 min after the registration of a penetration event in that channel. At least four particles penetrated the detectors in the 4.5 h period around Saturn periapsis at radial distances between 1.36 and 3.1 Saturn radii, a radial distribution inconsistent with the gravitational focusing of meteoroids. The detection of particles which may have been part of the E ring before the crossing of the ring plane suggests that this ring may be 1800 km thick, with an optical thickness greater than 10 to the -8th.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Science; 207; Jan. 25
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: It is noted that the Shuttle Orbiter will be more subject to meteoroid impact than previous spacecraft, due to its greater surface area and longer cumulative time in space. The Orbiter structural material, RCC, a reinforced carbon-carbon laminate with a diffused silicon carbide coating, is evaluated in terms of its resistance to hypervelocity impact. It was found that the specimens (disks with a mass of 34 g and a thickness of 5.0 mm) were cratered only on the front surface when the impact energy was 3 J or less. At 3 J, a trace of the black carbon interior was exposed. The specimens were completely penetrated when the energy was 34 J or greater.
    Keywords: COMPOSITE MATERIALS
    Type: Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets; 15; July-Aug
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Four laser receiver systems are compared to onboard solar photovoltaic power generation for spacecraft electrical requirements. The laser photovoltaic and laser MHD receivers were found to be lighter than a comparable planar solar photovoltaic system. The laser receiver also shows less drag at lower altitudes. Panel area is also reduced for the laser receiver allowing fewer Shuttle trips for construction. Finally, it is shown that a 1 megawatt laser and receiver system might be constructed with less weight than a comparable planar solar photovoltaic system.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The meteoroid penetration detectors on Pioneer 10 (channel 0) recorded 95 penetrations through the 25-micron stainless steel test material while the spacecraft was between 1 and 18 AU. The spatial density of 10 to the -9 g meteoroids is found to be essentially constant between 1 and 18 AU. The meteoroid penetration detectors on Pioneer 11 recorded 87 penetrations (55 on channel 0 and 32 on channel 1) through the 50-micron stainless steel test material while the spacecraft was between 1 and 9 AU. It is found that the meteoroids between 4 and 5 AU are not in direct circular or near-circular orbits near the ecliptic plane. The Pioneer 11 data obtained between 4 and 5 AU are best explained by the meteoroids being in randomly inclined orbits of high eccentricity. If meteoroids are in these cometlike orbits, the great increase in penetration flux previously measured near Jupiter with the Pioneer 10 experiment cannot be attributed to gravitational focusing unless the size distribution of meteoroids changes substantially between 1 and 5 AU. At Saturn encounter, the penetration flux increased by about three orders of magnitude, probably as the result of impacts from ring particles. Saturn's ring E is estimated to be 1800 km thick with an optical thickness greater than 10 to the -8.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 85; Nov. 1
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