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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Over a decade of work has been conducted in the development of NASA's Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This effort has included multiple ground test campaigns and flight tests culminating in the HIAD projects second generation (Gen-2) deployable aeroshell system and associated analytical tools. NASAs HIAD project team has developed, fabricated, and tested inflatable structures (IS) integrated with flexible thermal protection system (F-TPS), ranging in diameters from 3-6m, with cone angles of 60 and 70 deg.In 2015, United Launch Alliance (ULA) announced that they will use a HIAD (10-12m) as part of their Sensible, Modular, Autonomous Return Technology (SMART) for their upcoming Vulcan rocket. ULA expects SMART reusability, coupled with other advancements for Vulcan, will substantially reduce the cost of access to space. The first booster engine recovery via HIAD is scheduled for 2024. To meet this near-term need, as well as future NASA applications, the HIAD team is investigating taking the technology to the 10-15m diameter scale. In the last year, many significant development and fabrication efforts have been accomplished, culminating in the construction of a large-scale inflatable structure demonstration assembly. This assembly incorporated the first three tori for a 12m Mars Human-Scale Pathfinder HIAD conceptual design that was constructed with the current state of the art material set. Numerous design trades and torus fabrication demonstrations preceded this effort. In 2016, three large-scale tori (0.61m cross-section) and six subscale tori (0.25m cross-section) were manufactured to demonstrate fabrication techniques using the newest candidate material sets. These tori were tested to evaluate durability and load capacity. This work led to the selection of the inflatable structures third generation (Gen-3) structural liner. In late 2016, the three tori required for the large-scale demonstration assembly were fabricated, and then integrated in early 2017. The design includes provisions to add the remaining four tori necessary to complete the assembly of the 12m Human-Scale Pathfinder HIAD in the event future project funding becomes available.This presentation will discuss the HIAD large-scale demonstration assembly design and fabrication per-formed in the last year including the precursor tori development and the partial-stack fabrication. Potential near-term and future 10-15m HIAD applications will also be discussed.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN43176 , International Planetary Probe Workshop; 12-16 Jun. 2017; The Hague; Netherlands
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The driving requirement for design of a Mars Sample return mission is assuring containment of the returned samples. The impact of this requirement on developmental costs, mass allocation, and design approach of the Earth Entry Vehicle is significant. A simple Earth entry vehicle is described which can meet these requirements and safely transport the Mars Sample Return mission's sample through the Earth's atmosphere to a recoverable location on the surface. Detailed analysis and test are combined with probabilistic risk assessment to design this entirely passive concept that circumvents the potential failure modes of a parachute terminal descent system. The design also possesses features that mitigate other risks during the entry, descent, landing and recovery phases. The results of a full-scale drop test are summarized.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: IAF-00-Q.3.04 , 51st International Astronautics Federation Congress; 2-6 Oct. 2000; Rio de Janeiro; Brazil
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: NASAs Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology was selected for a Technology Demonstration Mission under the Space Technology Mission Directorate in 2017. HIAD is an enabling technology that can facilitate atmospheric entry of heavy payloads to planets such as Earth and Mars using a deployable aeroshell. The deployable nature of the HIAD technology allows it to avoid the size constraints imposed on current rigid aeroshell entry systems. This enables use of larger aeroshells resulting in increased entry system performance (e.g. higher pay-load mass and/or volume, higher landing altitude at Mars). The Low Earth Orbit Flight Test of an Inflatable Decelerator (LOFTID) is currently scheduled for late-2021. LOFTID will be launched out of Vandenberg Air Force Base as a secondary payload on an Atlas V rocket. The flight test features a 6m diameter, 70-deg sphere-cone aeroshell and will provide invaluable high-energy orbital re-entry flight data. This data will be essential in supporting the HIAD team to mature the technology to diameters of 10m and greater. Aeroshells of this scale are applicable to potential near-term commercial applications and future NASA missions. Currently the LOFTID project has completed fabrication of the engineering design unit (EDU) inflatable structure (IS) and the flexible thermal protection system (F-TPS). These two components along with the rigid nose and center body comprise the HIAD aeroshell system. This EDU aeroshell is the precursor to the LOFTID aeroshell that will be used for flight. The EDU was built to verify the design given the subtle differences between the LOFTID aeroshell and past aeroshell designs that have been fabricated under the NASA HIAD project. To characterize the structural performance of the LOFTID aeroshell design, three structural tests will be performed. The first test to be conducted is static load testing, which will induce a uniform load across the forward surface of the aeroshell to simulate the expected pressure forces during atmospheric entry. The IS integrated with the rigid center body will first be tested alone to provide data for analytical model correlation, and then the F-TPS will be integrated for a second series of static load testing of the full aeroshell system. Instrumentation will be employed during the test series to measure component loads during testing, and a laser scanner will be used to generate a 3D map of the aeroshell surface to verify that the shape of the structure is acceptable at the simulated flight loads. After static load testing, pack and deployment testing will be conducted multiple times on the integrated system to demonstrate the aeroshells ability to fit within the required packed volume for the LOFTID mission without experiencing significant damage. Finally, the aeroshell will undergo modal testing to characterize its structural response. This presentation will discuss the setup and execution of each of the three tests that the EDU aeroshell will undergo. In addition, initial results of the testing will be presented outlining key findings as LOFTID moves for-ward with fabrication of the flight aeroshell.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN66439 , International Planetary Probe Workshop; 8-12 Jul. 2019; Oxford; United Kingdom
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: NASA is developing low ballistic coefficient technologies to support the Nations long-term goal of landing humans on Mars. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for this class of payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current and future launch vehicle fairing limitations. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs) are being developed to circumvent this limitation and are now considered a leading technology to enable landing of heavy payloads on Mars. At the beginning of 2014, a 6m diameter HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection system (TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify its structural performance under flight-relevant loads. The inflatable structure was constructed into a 60 degree sphere-cone configuration using nine inflatable torus segments composed of fiber-reinforced thin films. The inflatable tori were joined together using adhesives and high-strength textile woven structural straps. These straps help distribute the load throughout the inflatable structure. The 6m flexible TPS was constructed using multiple layers of high performance materials that are designed to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen in flight during atmospheric entry. A custom test fixture was constructed to perform the static load test series. The fixture consisted of a round structural tub with enough height and width to allow for displacement of the HIAD test article as loads were applied. The bottom of the tub rim had an airtight seal with the floor. The rigid centerbody of the HIAD was mounted to a pedestal in the center of the structural tub. Using an impermeable membrane draped over the HIAD test article, an airtight seal was created with the top rim of the static load tub. This seal allowed partial vacuum to be pulled beneath the HIAD resulting in a uniform static pressure load applied to the outer surface. Using this technique, the test article was subjected to loads of up to 50,000lbs. During the test series an extensive amount of instrumentation was used to provide a rich data set, including deflected shape, structural strap loads, torus cord loads, inflation pressures, and applied static load. In this paper the 2014 6m HIAD static load test series will be discussed in detail, including the design of the 6m HIAD test article, the test setup, and test execution. Analysis results will be described supporting the conclusions that were drawn from the test series..
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Aerodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN16166 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; 7-14 Mar. 2015; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Over a decade of work has been conducted in the development of NASA's Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) deployable aeroshell technology. This effort has included multiple ground test campaigns and flight tests culminating in the HIAD project's second generation (Gen-2) aeroshell system. The HIAD project team has developed, fabricated, and tested stacked-torus inflatable structures (IS) with flexible thermal protection systems (F-TPS) ranging in diameters from 3-6 meters, with cone angles of 60 and 70 degrees. To meet NASA and commercial near-term objectives, the HIAD team must scale the current technology up to 12-15 meters in diameter. Therefore, the HIAD project's experience in scaling the technology has reached a critical juncture. Growing from a 6-meter to a 15-meter class system will introduce many new structural and logistical challenges to an already complicated manufacturing process. Although the general architecture and key aspects of the HIAD design scale well to larger vehicles, details of the technology will need to be reevaluated and possibly redesigned for use in a 15-meter-class HIAD system. These include: layout and size of the structural webbing that transfers load throughout the IS, inflatable gas barrier design, torus diameter and braid construction, internal pressure and inflation line routing, adhesives used for coating and bonding, and F-TPS gore design and seam fabrication. The logistics of fabricating and testing the IS and the F-TPS also become more challenging with increased scale. Compared to the 6-meter aeroshell (the largest HIAD built to date), a 12-meter aeroshell has four times the cross-sectional area, and a 15-meter one has over six times the area. This means that fabrication and test procedures will need to be reexamined to account for the sheer size and weight of the aeroshell components. This will affect a variety of steps in the manufacturing process, such as: stacking the tori during assembly, stitching the structural webbing, initial inflation of tori, and stitching of F-TPS gores. Additionally, new approaches and hardware will be required for handling and ground testing of both individual tori and the fully assembled HIADs. There are also noteworthy benefits of scaling up the HIAD aeroshell to a 15m-class system. Two complications in working with handmade textile structures are the non-linearity of the material components and the role of human accuracy during fabrication. Larger, more capable, HIAD structures should see much larger operational loads, potentially bringing the structural response of the material components out of the non-linear regime and into the preferred linear response range. Also, making the reasonable assumption that the magnitude of fabrication accuracy remains constant as the structures grow, the relative effect of fabrication errors should decrease as a percentage of the textile component size. Combined, these two effects improve the predictive capability and the uniformity of the structural response for a 12-15-meter HIAD. In this presentation, a handful of the challenges and associated mitigation plans will be discussed, as well as an update on current manufacturing and testing that addressing these challenges.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN30768 , International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW 2016); 13-17 Jun. 2016; Laurel, MD; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: We show first results derived from one rotation of GONG++ and MDI data analyzed independently by different groups with time-distance techniques. We focus on observations obtained during spring 2002 and especially on Carrington rotation 1988 (2002/3/30 - 2002/4/26) and measure flow components and wave speed inhomogeneities over a range of depths for different active regions.
    Keywords: Solar Physics
    Type: Solar Physics Division 2003; 16-20 Jun. 2003; Laurel, MD; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-26
    Description: To support NASAs long term goal of landing humans on Mars, technologies which enable the landing of heavy payloads are being developed. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for human class payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current launch vehicle fairing limitations. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being explored to provide a mass and volume efficient solution to atmospheric entry, including Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). In October of 2014, a 3.7m HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection sys-tem (F-TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify the designs structural performance. The 3.7m HIAD structure was constructed in a 70 deg sphere-cone stacked-toroid configuration using eight inflatable tori, which were joined together using adhesives and high strength textile webbing to help distribute the loads throughout the inflatable structure. The inflatable structure was fabricated using 2nd generation structural materials that permit an increase in use temperature to 400 C+ as compared to the 250 C limitation of the 1st generation materials. In addition to the temperature benefit, these materials also offer a 40 reduction in structure mass. The 3.7m F-TPS was fabricated using high performance materials to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen during atmospheric entry. The F-TPS was constructed of 2nd generation TPS materials increasing its heating capability from 35W sq cm to over 100W sq cm. This test article is the first stacked-torus HIAD to be fabricated and tested with a 70 deg sphere-cone. All previous stacked-torus HIADs have employed a 60o sphere-cone. To perform the static load test series, a custom test fixture was constructed. The fixture consisted of a structural tub rim with enough height to allow for dis-placement of the inflatable structure as loads were applied. The tub rim was attached to the floor to provide an airtight seal. The center body of the inflatable structure was attached to a pedestal mount as seen in Figure 1. Using an impermeable membrane seal draped over the test article, partial vacuum was pulled beneath the HIAD, resulting in a uniform static pressure load applied to the outer surface. During the test series an extensive amount of instrumentation was used to characterize deformed shape, shoulder deflection, strap loads, and cord loads as a function of structural configuration and applied static load. In this overview, the 3.7m HIAD static load test series will be discussed in detail, including the 3.7m HIAD inflatable structure and flexible TPS design, test setup and execution, and finally results and conclusions from the test series.
    Keywords: Structural Mechanics; Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN24246 , International Planetary Probe Workshop; Jun 15, 2015 - Jun 19, 2015; Cologne; Germany
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: Over a decade of work has been conducted in the development of NASAs Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This effort has included multiple ground test campaigns and flight tests culminating in the HIAD projects second generation (Gen-2) deployable aeroshell system and associated analytical tools. NASAs HIAD project team has developed, fabricated, and tested inflatable structures (IS) integrated with flexible thermal protection system (F-TPS), ranging in diameters from 3-6m, with cone angles of 60 and 70 deg.In 2015, United Launch Alliance (ULA) announced that they will use a HIAD (10-12m) as part of their Sensible, Modular, Autonomous Return Technology (SMART) for their upcoming Vulcan rocket. ULA expects SMART reusability, coupled with other advancements for Vulcan, will substantially reduce the cost of access to space. The first booster engine recovery via HIAD is scheduled for 2024. To meet this near-term need, as well as future NASA applications, the HIAD team is investigating taking the technology to the 10-15m diameter scale.In the last year, many significant development and fabrication efforts have been accomplished, culminating in the construction of a large-scale inflatable structure demonstration assembly. This assembly incorporated the first three tori for a 12m Mars Human-Scale Pathfinder HIAD conceptual design that was constructed with the current state of the art material set. Numerous design trades and torus fabrication demonstrations preceded this effort. In 2016, three large-scale tori (0.61m cross-section) and six subscale tori (0.25m cross-section) were manufactured to demonstrate fabrication techniques using the newest candidate material sets. These tori were tested to evaluate durability and load capacity. This work led to the selection of the inflatable structures third generation (Gen-3) structural liner. In late 2016, the three tori required for the large-scale demonstration assembly were fabricated, and then integrated in early 2017. The design includes provisions to add the remaining four tori necessary to complete the assembly of the 12m Human-Scale Pathfinder HIAD in the event future project funding becomes available.This presentation will discuss the HIAD large-scale demonstration assembly design and fabrication per-formed in the last year including the precursor tori development and the partial-stack fabrication. Potential near-term and future 10-15m HIAD applications will also be discussed.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN39680 , International Planetary Probe Workshop; Jun 12, 2017 - Jun 16, 2017; The Hague; Netherlands
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: This paper describes a proposed orbital velocity reentry flight test of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD). The flight test builds upon ground development activities that continue to advance the materials, design, and manufacturing techniques for the inflatable structure and flexible thermal protection system (F-TPS) that comprise the inflatable heat shield. While certain aspects of material and system performance can be assessed using a variety of ground testing capabilities, only orbital velocity energy on a trajectory through the gradient density of the atmosphere can impart the combined aerodynamic and aeroheating design environments in real time. To achieve this at limited cost, the HIAD would be delivered to a spin-stabilized entry trajectory as a secondary payload on the Centaur stage of a United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V launch vehicle. Initial trajectory studies indicate that the combination of launch vehicle capability and achievable reentry vehicle ballistic numbers make this a strategic opportunity for technology development. This 4 to 6 meter diameter scale aeroshell flight, referred to as HIAD on ULA (HULA), would also contribute to ULA asset recovery development. ULA has proposed that a HIAD be utilized as part of the Sensible, Modular, Autonomous Return Technology (SMART) initiative to enable recovery of the Vulcan launch vehicle booster main engines [1], including a Mid-Air Recovery (MAR) to gently return these assets for reuse. Whereas HULA will attain valuable aerothermal and structural response data toward advancing HIAD technology, it may also provide a largest-to-date scaled flight test of the MAR operation, which in turn would allow the examination of a nearly pristine post-entry aeroshell. By utilizing infrared camera imaging, HULA will also attain aft-side thermal response data, enhancing understanding of the aft side aerothermal environment, an area of high uncertainty. The aeroshell inflation will utilize a heritage design compressed gas system to minimize development costs. The data will be captured to both an onboard recorder and a recorder that is jettisoned and recovered separately from the reentry vehicle to mitigate risk. This paper provides an overview, including the architecture and flight concept of operations, for the proposed HULA flight experiment.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NF1676L-24027 , International Planetary Probe Workshop; Jun 13, 2013 - Jun 17, 2013; Laurel, MD; United States
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