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  • 1
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-20
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: This paper examines the effects of substantial changes in paid parental leave on child development and socio-economic development gaps. We exploit a German reform from 2007 that both expanded paid leave in the first year and removed paid leave in the second year following childbirth. Higher-income households benefited relatively more from the reform than low-income households. We use administrative data from mandatory school entrance examinations containing detailed child development assessments at age six within a difference-in-differences approach. Our precise and robust estimates reveal no effects of the changes in parental leave benefits on child development across various socio-economic groups, and consequently no effects on socio-economic development gaps.
    Keywords: J13 ; J18 ; J22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave benefit ; child development ; school readiness ; motor skills ; language skills ; socio-emotional stability
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: This paper presents evidence of substantial causal effects of parental education on children's health behaviours and long-term health. We study intergenerational effects of a compulsory schooling increase in Germany after World War II, which was implemented across federal states at different points in time. Maternal schooling reduces children's smoking and overweight in adolescence. The effects persist into children's adulthood, reducing chronic conditions that often result from unhealthy lifestyles. We find no effects of paternal education. Children's peer environment early in life and increased investments in their education are possible effect channels. The intergenerational effects exceed the direct effects on health.
    Keywords: I12 ; I24 ; I26 ; ddc:330 ; parental education ; returns to education ; smoking ; overweight ; compulsory schooling ; health behaviour
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-11-12
    Description: Parental leave policies are a major policy tool used across OECD countries to support families before and after child birth. There are large differences across countries in the amount and the duration of benefit payments as well as leave entitlement periods. Despite these differences, the shared goal of parental leave policies is to reconcile family life and work, and support child development. While much research attention has been paid to the effects of parental leave policies on maternal labor supply, much less is known about their effects on child development and health. This DIW Roundup summarizes the international literature on parental leave policies and their impact on child outcomes. The literature suggests that the effects are small. However, research in this area is still relatively new and it is too early to draw conclusions about how the design of parental leave policies impacts on child development.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-12-30
    Description: On January 1, 2017, the parental leave benefit will be celebrating its tenth anniversary. Although its implementation was fervidly debated, it has become a widely accepted family policy measure. Its impact on parental labor supply, the division oflabor between parents, fertility, and indicators that reflect the well-being of parents and children have been examined from a variety of perspectives. A global evaluation of relevant economic studies shows that on average, when young familiesreceive the parental leave benefit as an earnings replacement benefit, their economic stability in the first year after childbirth increases. As a result of the parental leave benefit, the employment rate of mothers decreased in the first year after childbirth, while it increased in the second year. The share of fathers who take parental leave has clearly increased, while the effects on the division of labor within the family are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that the parental leave benefit can even have an effect on fertility. Little is known about its impact on child development. Overall, although the parental leave benefit family policy measure has been successful in many areas, its targeted effects could be augmented by additional family policy reforms.
    Keywords: J12 ; J13 ; J16 ; J18 ; J21 ; J22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave ; parental leave benefit ; family policy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-12-30
    Description: Am 1. Januar 2017 feiert das Elterngeld sein zehnjähriges Bestehen. Gleichwohl die Einführung von einigen Diskussionen begleitet war, ist es inzwischen eine familienpolitische Leistung mit hoher Akzeptanz. Ihre Wirkung auf die Erwerbstätigkeit der Eltern, die partnerschaftliche Arbeitsteilung, die Fertilität und andere Indikatoren, welche das Wohlbefinden von Familien widerspiegeln, wurden aus unterschiedlichen Perspektiven untersucht. Eine zusammenfassende Auswertung primär ökonomischer Studien zeigt, dass das Elterngeld als Lohnersatzleistung die wirtschaftliche Stabilität junger Familien im ersten Jahr nach der Geburt eines Kindes im Durchschnitt erhöht. Die Erwerbstätigkeit von Müttern im ersten Lebensjahr nach Geburt hat durch das Elterngeld ab-, und im zweiten Lebensjahr zugenommen. Während der Anteil von Vätern in Elternzeit stark gestiegen ist, sind die Effekte auf die partnerschaftliche Arbeitsteilung nicht eindeutig. Effekte auf die Fertilität sind teilweise nachzuweisen. Der Einfluss auf die kindliche Entwicklung wurde bisher kaum untersucht. Insgesamt handelt es sich bei dem Elterngeld um eine in vielen Bereichen erfolgreiche familienpolitische Maßnahme, deren zielorientierte Wirkung allerdings durch weitere familienpolitische Reformen verstärkt werden könnte.
    Description: On January 1, 2017, the parental leave benefit will be celebrating its tenth anniversary. Although its implementation was fervidly debated, it has become a widely accepted family policy measure. Its impact on parental labor supply, the division oflabor between parents, fertility, and indicators that reflect the well-being of parents and children have been examined from a variety of perspectives. A global evaluation of relevant economic studies shows that on average, when young familiesreceive the parental leave benefit as an earnings replacement benefit, their economic stability in the first year after childbirth increases. As a result of the parental leave benefit, the employment rate of mothers decreased in the first year after childbirth, while it increased in the second year. The share of fathers who take parental leave has clearly increased, while the effects on the division of labor within the family are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that the parental leave benefit can even have an effect on fertility. Little is known about its impact on child development. Overall, although the parental leave benefit family policy measure has been successful in many areas, its targeted effects could be augmented by additional family policy reforms.
    Keywords: J12 ; J13 ; J16 ; J18 ; J21 ; J22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave ; parental leave benefit ; family policy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-03-21
    Description: This paper examines the effects of a substantial change in publicly funded paid parental leave in Germany on child development and socio-economic development gaps. For children born before January 1, 2007, parental leave benefits were means-tested and paid for up to 24 months after childbirth. For children born thereafter, parental leave benefits were earnings-related and only paid for up to 14 months. Higher-income households benefited more from the reform than low-income households. We study the reform effects on children's language skills, motor skills, socio-emotional stability, and school readiness using administrative data from mandatory school entrance examinations at age six and a difference-in-differences design. We find no impact of the reform on child development and socio-economic development gaps. The effects are precisely estimated and robust to various model specifications and sample definitions. Our resultssuggest that such substantial changes in parental leave benefits are unlikely to impact children's development. These findings are consistent with recent studies showing that temporary unrestricted transfers and maternal part-time employment have a limited impact on parental investments in their children.
    Keywords: J13 ; J18 ; J22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave benefit ; child development ; skill formation ; parental investments ; school readiness ; motor skills ; language skills ; socio-emotional stability ; socio-economic differences
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: This paper analyses the role of family risk attitudes in intergenerational mobility in incomes and education. Based on 1984-2009 data of sons and fathers from the German Socio-Economic Panel Survey, there is evidence suggesting that sons with risk taking fathers have a significantly higher educational mobility and persistently higher income mobility than peers with risk averse fathers. They obtain significantly higher levels of education, which would be justified by modest evidence on higher returns to education. The relationship seems more complex for sons' own risk attitudes. Risk taking sons experience higher educational mobility, but there is no difference in income mobility to risk averse sons. There are no considerable differences in the levels of education, but modest evidence suggesting lower returns to education for risk taking sons. The findings improve the understanding of the intergenerational transmission mechanism of economic status and show that family risk attitudes impact economic mobility. The study suggests an important intergenerational link between fathers' risk attitudes and sons' levels of education, which has not received much attention in the literature.
    Keywords: D1 ; D8 ; I24 ; J13 ; J24 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; risk preferences ; intergenerational mobility ; educational mobility ; social mobility ; returns to education ; intergenerational income elasticity ; educational choice under uncertainty ; SOEP
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Kaum eine Bildungsreform der vergangenen Jahre ist umstrittener als die G8-Reform zur Verkürzung der Gymnasialschulzeit. Obwohl es bisher nur sehr wenige verlässliche empirische Befunde zur Wirkung der G8-Reform gibt, erwägen mehrere Bundesländer bereits eine Rückkehr von der zwölf- zur 13-jährigen Schulzeit bis zum Abitur. Eine neue Studie des DIW Berlin untersucht verschiedene Auswirkungen der G8-Reform anhand amtlicher Daten über alle Schüler der Abiturjahrgänge 2002 bis 2013. Die Studie zeigt unter anderem, dass die G8-Reform das Alter der Abiturienten am Gymnasium um durchschnittlich zehn Monate reduziert hat - und nicht um zwölf Monate, um die sich die Schulzeit infolge der Reform verkürzt hat. Ein Grund dafür ist, dass der Anteil der Schüler, die während der Gymnasialzeit sitzengeblieben sind, durch die G8-Reform um drei Prozentpunkte - also um etwa ein Fünftel - gestiegen ist. Den stärksten Anstieg bei den Klassenwiederholungen gab es in der Oberstufe; Jungen waren im Mittel stärker betroffen als Mädchen. Der Anteil an Schülern, die ihre Schullaufbahn am Gymnasium mit dem Abitur abschließen, blieb von der G8-Reform jedoch unberührt.
    Description: The G8 high school reform to reduce the total number of years spent at Gymnasium (Germany's academictrack secondary school) has been more controversial than almost any other education reform in recent years. Although there are very few reliable empirical findings on the effects of the G8 reform, several federal states are already considering a return to the old system, which required 13 years-rather than 12 under the G8 system-for graduation from Gymnasium. A new study by DIW Berlin examines the different effects of the G8 reform using administrative data on all students who graduated from Gymnasium between 2002 and 2013. The study shows, among other things, that the G8 reform has reduced the age of graduation from Gymnasium by an average of ten months-and not the twelve months Gymnasium schooling was reduced by. One reason for this is that the share of students who repeated a grade during their time at Gymnasium rose by three percentage points-approximately a fifth-as a result of the reform. The sharpest rise in grade repetitions was seen in the final years (Oberstufe), with boys being more strongly affected on average than girls. The share of students who graduated from Gymnasium (thereby earning their university entrance qualification or Abitur), however, was unaffected by the G8 high school reform.
    Keywords: I28 ; J18 ; D04 ; ddc:330 ; G12 ; G8 high school reform ; graduation age ; grade repetition ; grade retention ; graduation rates ; learning intensity ; instructional time
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 10
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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