Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Abstract Sol-gel synthesis of nano-sized BaTiO3, BaZrO3 and BaTi0.5Zr0.5O3 ceramics using alkoxide and semi-alkoxide routes has been investigated and the pervoskites obtained have been compared with respect to crystallisation temperature, crystallite size and compositional purity. Heterometal alkoxides containing two (for BaTiO3 and BaZrO3) and three (for BaTi0.5Zr0.5O3) different metals were used as single-source precursors in the alkoxide route while semi-alkoxide synthesis was performed by reacting barium hydroxide or acetate with Ti and/or Zr alkoxides. Semi-alkoxide synthesis also produces stoichiometric and phase-pure oxides, however, at temperatures higher than 1000°C. At temperatures below 1000°C, BaCO3 and small amounts of other undesired phases (e.g., BaTi2O4) were present in the oxides derived from semi-alkoxide synthesis. Thermal behaviour, studied by TGA/DTA measurements, shows that thermal decomposition occurs in three major steps and depends on the educt composition and the synthesis route. Among alkoxide derived powders, crystalline BaTi0.5Zr0.5O3 phase is formed at 400°C while complete crystallisation of BaMO3 ceramics occurs around 600°C. The cubic to tetragonal phase transition for BaTiO3 is clearly observed at relatively low-temperature of 800°C. The stoichiometry and phase homogeneity of the obtained powders were demonstrated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis and powder diffractometry. The averaged crystallite size of the obtained nano-ceramics was evaluated using the FormFit programme. SEM and TEM observations revealed a high microstructural uniformity.
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