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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The feasibility of remote sensing of current flows in the ocean and the remote sensing of ocean currents by backscattering cross section techniques was studied. It was established that for capillary waves, small scale currents could be accurately measured through observation of wave kinematics. Drastic modifications of waves by changing currents were noted. The development of new methods for the measurement of capillary waves are discussed. Improvement methods to resolve data processing problems are suggested.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-CR-168349 , NAS 1.26:168439
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Both quasi-stationary and dynamic departures from the marine geoid were successfully detected using altitude measurements from the GEOS-3 radar altimeter. The quasi-stationary departures are observed either as elevation changes in single pass profiles across the Gulf Stream or at the crowding of contour lines at the western and northern areas of topographic maps generated using altimeter data spanning one month or longer. Dynamic features such as current meandering and spawned eddies can be monitored by comparing monthly mean maps. Comparison of altimeter inferred eddies with IR detected thermal rings indicates agreement of the two techniques. Estimates of current velocity are made using derived slope estimates in conjunction with the geostrophic equation.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-TM-73280
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Radar altimeter measurements from the GEOS-3 satellite to the ocean surface indicated the presence of expected geostrophic height differences across the the Gulf Stream. Dynamic sea surface heights were found by both editing and filtering the raw sea surface heights and then referencing these processed data to a 5 minute x 5 minute geoid. Any trend between the processed data and the geoid was removed by subtracting out a linear fit to the residuals in the open ocean. The mean current velocity of 107 + or - 29 cm/sec calculated from the dynamic heights for all orbits corresponded with velocities obtained from hydrographic methods. Also, dynamic topographic maps were produced for August, September, and October 1975. Results pointed out limitations in the accuracy of the geoid, height anomaly deteriorations due to filtering, and lack of dense time and space distribution of measurements.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-TP-1209
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Based on the complete Stokes wave model with the bias term and using a simple mapping approach and an iteration solution method, we established a formula for the joint probability density function of the surface slope elevation of a nonlinear random wave field. The formula requires three parameters to define the whole density function: the rms surface elevation and slope values and the significant slope. This model represents the dynamics of the wave in a more direct way than the Gram-Charlier approximation. Based on this new statistical model and laboratory experiments, formula and numerical values of EM bias and dynamics bias are derived. The results indicate that various biases should be considered seriously if accuracy of the altimeter measurement is required in centimeter range.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center Frontiers of Remote Sensing of the Oceans and Troposphere from Air and Space Platforms; p 247-255
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: A new laser device has been used to make direct wave-slope measurements in the capillary-gravity range. Owing to the design principles, the digital nature of the system and the use of a laser beam as a probe, the earlier problems of intensity variations and meniscus effects were avoided. Using this new technique, wave-slope spectra both down and across the channel were obtained for different wind conditions, along with corresponding mean-square slope values. Comparisons are made with existing data. The results indicate that a quasi-equilibrium state may exist for each wind speed and that it increases in intensity with increasing wind, which may imply an asymptotic nature for the equilibrium-range coefficient. From the data, two significant frictional velocities, 17.5 and 31 cm/s respectively, are identified as critical values for different ranges of wave development.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Fluid Mechanics; 77; Sept. 24
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Controlled laboratory experiments are reported which demonstrate directly and quantitatively the influence of wave conditions in determining the drag law at the air-sea interface under neutral stability conditions. It is concluded that the analytic form first proposed by Kitaigorodskii (1970) models the roughness scale very well when the sea is dominated by the locally generated waves. It is demonstrated that, by using a unified two-parameter wave spectral model by Huang et al. (1981), Kitaigorodskii's result can be shown to contain the formulas of Charnock (1955) and Hsu (1974) as special cases. The results also identify two wind and wave-related parameters as important in determining the drag coefficient for developing wave fields.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 7733-774
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Using the Stokes waves as a model of nonlinear waves and considering the linear component as a narrow-band Gaussian process, the covariances and spectra of velocity and acceleration components and pressure for points in the vicinity of still water level were derived taking into consideration the effects of free surface fluctuations. The results are compared with those obtained earlier using linear Gaussian waves.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 90; 11
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: From data obtained by the GEOS 3 radar altimeter, sea surface heights are found by both editing and filtering the raw sea surface height measurements and then referencing these processed data to a 5 foot by 5 foot geoid. Any trend between the processed data and the geoid is removed by subtracting out a linear fit to the residuals in the open ocean. Data from individual passes are further processed by applying a minimum variance technique at the subsatellite crossing points to produce surface topography maps for the 6 months and an overall mean map which reveal important details about the Gulf Stream system. The differences between the monthly mean and the overall mean are calculated for each of the 6 months to show the temporal and spatial changes of the Gulf Stream front and spawned eddies. The standard deviation map is even more informative and shows preferred locations of Gulf Stream meanders.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The effect of wave breaking on the probability function of surface elevation is examined. The surface elevation limited by wave breaking zeta sub b(t) is first related to the original wave elevation zeta(t) and its second derivative. An approximate, second-order, nonlinear, non-Gaussian model for zeta(t) of arbitrary but moderate bandwidth is presented, and an expression for the probability density function zeta sub b(t) is derived. The results show clearly that the effect of wave breaking on the probability density function of surface elevation is to introduce a secondary hump on the positive side of the probability density function, a phenomenon also observed in wind wave tank experiments.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 967-972
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: An approximate method is devised to compute the energy-containing portion of the spectrum of waves in water of finite depth, taking into account the effect of wave breaking. It is assumed that there exists a linear and Gaussian ideal wave train whose spectrum is first calculated using the wave energy flux balance equation without considering wave breaking. The Miche wave-breaking criterion for waves in water of finite depth is then applied to limit the wave elevation and establish an expression for the breaking wave elevation in terms of the elevation and elevation's second time derivative of the ideal waves. Simple expressions for the mean value, the mean square value, and the spectrum of the breaking waves are then obtained, and numerical results are presented graphically.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 5125-513
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