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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Wildfires emit significant amounts of pollutants that degrade air quality. Plumes from three wildfires in the western U.S. were measured from aircraft during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) and the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), both in summer 2013. This study reports an extensive set of emission factors (EFs) for over 80 gases and 5 components of submicron particulate matter (PM1) from these temperate wildfires. These include rarely, or never before, measured oxygenated volatile organic compounds and multifunctional organic nitrates. The observed EFs are compared with previous measurements of temperate wildfires, boreal forest fires, and temperate prescribed fires. The wildfires emitted high amounts of PM1 (with organic aerosol (OA) dominating the mass) with an average EF that is more than 2 times the EFs for prescribed fires. The measured EFs were used to estimate the annual wildfire emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total non methane organic compounds, and PM1 from 11 western U.S. states. The estimated gas emissions are generally comparable with the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). However, our PM1 emission estimate (1530 +/- 570 Gg/yr) is over 3 times that of the NEI PM2.5 estimate and is also higher than the PM2.5 emitted from all other sources in these states in the NEI. This study indicates that the source of OA from biomass burning in the western states is significantly underestimated. In addition, our results indicate that prescribed burning may be an effective method to reduce fine particle emissions.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN44715 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 2169-897X); 122; 11; 6108-6129
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using low-pressure Hg lamp emission at 185 and 254 nm produce OH radicals efficiently and are widely used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. However, knowledge of detailed OFR chemistry is limited, allowing speculation in the literature about whether some non-OH reactants, including several not relevant for tropospheric chemistry, may play an important role in these OFRs. These non-OH reactants are UV radiation, O(1D), O(3P), and O3. In this study, we investigate the relative importance of other reactants to OH for the fate of reactant species in OFR under a wide range of conditions via box modeling. The relative importance of non-OH species is less sensitive to UV light intensity than to relative humidity (RH) and external OH reactivity (OHRext), as both non-OH reactants and OH scale roughly proportional to UV intensity. We show that for field studies in forested regions and also the urban area of Los Angeles, reactants of atmospheric interest are predominantly consumed by OH. We find that O(1D), O(3P), and O3 have relative contributions to VOC consumption that are similar or lower than in the troposphere. The impact of O atoms can be neglected under most conditions in both OFR and troposphere. Under pathological OFR conditions of low RH and/or high OHRext, the importance of non-OH reactants is enhanced because OH is suppressed. Some biogenics can have substantial destructions by O3, and photolysis at non-tropospheric wavelengths (185 and 254 nm) may also play a significant role in the degradation of some aromatics under pathological conditions. Working under low O2 with the OFR185 mode allows OH to completely dominate over O3 reactions even for the biogenic species most reactive with O3. Non-tropospheric VOC photolysis may have been a problem in some laboratory and source studies, but can be avoided or lessened in future studies by diluting source emissions and working at lower precursor concentrations in lab studies, and by humidification. SOA photolysis is shown to be insignificant for most functional groups, except for nitrates and especially aromatics, which may be photolyzed at high UV flux settings. Our work further establishes the OFR's usefulness as a tool to study atmospheric chemistry and enables better experiment design and interpretation, as well as improved future reactor design.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN31209/SUPP , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (e-ISSN 1680-7324); 16; 7; 4283-4305
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using low-pressure Hg lamp emission at 185 and 254 nm produce OH radicals efficiently and are widely used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. However, knowledge of detailed OFR chemistry is limited, allowing speculation in the literature about whether some non-OH reactants, including several not relevant for tropospheric chemistry, may play an important role in these OFRs. These non-OH reactants are UV radiation, O(1D), O(3P), and O3. In this study, we investigate the relative importance of other reactants to OH for the fate of reactant species in OFR under a wide range of conditions via box modeling. The relative importance of non-OH species is less sensitive to UV light intensity than to relative humidity (RH) and external OH reactivity (OHRext), as both non-OH reactants and OH scale roughly proportional to UV intensity. We show that for field studies in forested regions and also the urban area of Los Angeles, reactants of atmospheric interest are predominantly consumed by OH. We find that O(1D), O(3P), and O3 have relative contributions to VOC consumption that are similar or lower than in the troposphere. The impact of O atoms can be neglected under most conditions in both OFR and troposphere. Under pathological OFR conditions of low RH and/or high OHRext, the importance of non-OH reactants is enhanced because OH is suppressed. Some biogenics can have substantial destructions by O3, and photolysis at non-tropospheric wavelengths (185 and 254 nm) may also play a significant role in the degradation of some aromatics under pathological conditions. Working under low O2 with the OFR185 mode allows OH to completely dominate over O3 reactions even for the biogenic species most reactive with O3. Non-tropospheric VOC photolysis may have been a problem in some laboratory and source studies, but can be avoided or lessened in future studies by diluting source emissions and working at lower precursor concentrations in lab studies, and by humidification. SOA photolysis is shown to be insignificant for most functional groups, except for nitrates and especially aromatics, which may be photolyzed at high UV flux settings. Our work further establishes the OFR's usefulness as a tool to study atmospheric chemistry and enables better experiment design and interpretation, as well as improved future reactor design.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN31209 , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (e-ISSN 1680-7324); 16; 7; 4283-4305
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Coastal marine ecosystems are sensitive to anthropogenic stressors and environmental change. The Chinese Government proposed an ecosystem-based marine spatial planning scheme called the “Marine Ecological Red Line” (MERL), aimed at protecting ecologically sensitive areas. The assessment and mapping of ecosystem sensitivity provide important tools for regional MERL and setting conservation priorities. In this study, an integrated framework for the comprehensive sensitivity assessment of coastal marine ecosystems was proposed. This framework had two components: endogenous sensitivity and exogenous sensitivity. A weighted summation method was used along with a GIS-based spatial analysis to calculate regional sensitivity quantitatively. Taking Xiamen Bay in China as a case study, the approach integrated spatial data on the distribution of marine habitats and multiple human activities. An index system (including 26 indicators) was established for the case study. Five areas with different levels of sensitivity were delineated. In the study region of 1281 km2, areas with extremely high and high sensitivity covered 87 km2 and 235 km2, respectively, and were hypothesized to be priority areas of conservation and regulation. Areas with the highest sensitivity were located closer to Jiulongjiang Estuary and along the coastline of Xiang’an. Areas with lower sensitivity were also mapped in Tong’an Bay, representing possible areas that could accommodate future industrial or intensive human use. Comparative analyses between endogenous sensitivity and exogenous sensitivity allowed the presence of development-protection conflict zones to be identified. The results provide an important scientific basis for MERL decisions. In addition, targeted management strategies were proposed for Xiamen Bay. This study presents an operational approach to provide relevant scientific knowledge on the process of ecosystem-based marine spatial planning, facilitating policy-making decisions in sustainable coastal and marine management.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-12-05
    Description: Characterization of Pseudooxynicotine Amine Oxidase of 〈i〉Pseudomonas putida〈/i〉 S16 that Is Crucial for Nicotine Degradation Scientific Reports, Published online: 4 December 2015; doi:10.1038/srep17770
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-02-03
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 326: A Seasonal Model Using Optimized Multi-Layer Neural Networks to Forecast Power Output of PV Plants Energies doi: 10.3390/en11020326 Authors: Yang Hu Weiwei Lian Yutong Han Songyuan Dai Honglu Zhu With the continuous increase of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) installed capacity and the urgent demand of synergetic utilization with the other power generation forms, the high-precision prediction of PV power generation is increasingly important for the optimal scheduling and safe operation of the grid. In order to improve the power prediction accuracy, using the response characteristics of PV array under different environmental conditions, a data driven multi-model power prediction method for PV power generation is proposed, based on the seasonal meteorological features. Firstly, through the analysis of PV power characteristics in typical seasons and seasonal distribution of the weather factors, such as solar irradiance and ambient temperature, the influences of different weather factors on PV power prediction are studied. Then, according to the meteorology characteristics of Beijing, different seasons can be divided. The historical data corresponding to different seasons are acquired and then the seasonal PV power forecasting models are established based on optimized multi-layer back propagation neural network (BPNN), realizing the multi-model prediction of PV power. Finally, effectiveness of the seasonal PV power forecasting method is compared and validated. The performance analysis of the neural network forecasting model under typical seasonal conditions shows that the multi-model forecasting method based on seasonal characteristics of PV power generation is better than that of single power forecasting model for the whole year. The results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the power forecasting accuracy of PV power.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: The electronic structure and spin polarization properties of pentagonal structure PdSe2 doped with transition metal atoms are studied through first- principles calculations. The theoretical investigations show that the band gap of the PdSe2 monolayer decreases after introducing Cr, Mn, Fe and Co dopants. The projected densities of states show that p-d orbital couplings between the transition metal atoms and PdSe2 generate new spin nondegenerate states near the Fermi level which make the system spin polarized. The calculated magnetic moments, spin density distributions and charge transfer of the systems suggest that the spin polarization in Cr-doped PdSe2 will be the biggest. Our work shows that the properties of PdSe2 can be modified by doping transition metal atoms, which provides opportunity for the applications of PdSe2 in electronics and spintronics.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-10-07
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-12-21
    Description: Recently, NCAR (the National Center for Atmospheric Research) released the Community Earth System Model’s low-warming simulations, which provided long-term climate data for stabilization pathways at 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels. Based on these data, six extreme low temperature indices—TXn (coldest day), TNn (coldest night), TX10p (cool days), TN10p (cool nights), CSDI (cold spell duration indicator), and DTR (diurnal temperature range)—were calculated to assess the changes in extreme low temperature over Northern China under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C warmer future. The results indicate that compared to the preindustrial level, the whole of China will experience 0.32–0.46 °C higher minimum surface air temperature (SAT) warming than the global average, and the winter temperature increase in Northern China will be the most pronounced over the country. In almost all the regions of Northern China, especially Northeast and Northwest China, extreme low temperature events will occur with lower intensity, frequency, and duration. Compared with the present day, the intensity of low temperature events will decrease most in Northeast China, with TXn increasing by 1.9 °C/2.0 °C and TNn increasing by 2.0 °C/2.5 °C under 1.5 °C/2.0 °C global warming, respectively. The frequency of low temperature events will decrease relatively more in North China, with TX10p decreasing by 8 days/11 days and TN10p decreasing by 7 days/9 days under 1.5 °C/2.0 °C warming. CSDI will decrease most in Northwest China, with decreases of 7 days/10 days with 1.5 °C/2.0 °C warming. DTR will decrease in the Northwest and Northeast but increase in North China, with −0.9 °C/−2.0 °C in the Northwest, −0.4 °C/−1.5 °C in the Northeast, and 1.7 °C/2.0 °C in North China in the 1.5 °C/2.0 °C warming scenarios. For temperatures lower than the 5th percentile, the PRs (probability ratios) will be 0.68 and 0.55 of that of the present day under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C warmer futures, respectively. Global warming of 2.0 °C instead of 1.5 °C will lead to extreme low temperature events decreasing by 6–56% in regard to intensity, frequency, and duration over Northern China, and the maximal values of decrease (24–56%) will be seen in Northeast China.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4433
    Topics: Geosciences
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