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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) will populate excited levels of atomic and molecular species when the energy separations involved are not too different from the CMBR peak frequency. The first measurement of the local CMBR temperature was in fact made using this method5 with fine ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 354 (1991), S. 460-461 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The B-band galaxy number counts rise rapidly with magnitude at least to B ~ 26, at which point the cumulative galaxy density is ~3 x 105 per square degree (refs 1,2). Comparison with a numerical model that assumes no luminosity evolution in the galaxy population and an invariant ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Lyman-a opacity of any uniformly distributed neutral hydrogen in intergalactic space between ourselves and distant quasars would depress the quasar continuum on the short-wavelength side of Lyman-a emission, producing a uniform absorption trough, the so-called 'Gunn-Peterson ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 371 (1994), S. 493-495 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Existing optical CCD (charge-coupled device) studies of the low-mass stellar content of the Galactic halo suggest that low-mass luminous stars are not a major contributor to the mass of the luminous stellar halo, to mass limits of 0.14 solar masses (0.14M0 ; ref. 8). Limits based on optical plate ...
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  • 5
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: The available data on interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of gamma Ara observed from the ground and with the Copernicus telescope have been analyzed to give column densities of various ion stages of H, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Ar, Ca, Mn, and Fe. The element abundances with respect to H nuclei in H I regions are similar to the values for zeta Oph, with depletions relative to the sun tending to increase with increasing condensation temperature. For example, toward gamma Ara, Fe is depleted by a factor of 50; Mg, Si, and Mn by about 10; and S, P, and N little or none. Interstellar Si IV and probably S IV appear stronger than in most other stars, but still their low ratios to Si III and S III suggest that soft X-rays and low-energy cosmic rays are not important sources of ionization. The width of the O VI lines and the absence of N V have been interpreted as evidence for a collisionally ionized region with a temperature between 300,000 and 700,000 K containing at least 0.0004 of the total interstellar column density.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; 202; Dec. 15
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The results of a two-dimensional spectrophotometric survey of the core regions of 11 rich clusters of galaxies are presented. A number of these clusters have spectacular optical emission line systems in their cores. Both morphologically and kinematically, the emission line regions divide into extended, 20-100 kpc systems of long linear filaments associated with the cluster core and more compact, homogeneous elongated regions associated with the dominant central cluster galaxy. It is suggested that the present results can be expected, as hot X-ray emitting gas cools in the cluster center. Luminosities almost entirely agree with expected values. The morphology of the systems can be understood if the filaments form initially in the cooling flow and, in some cases, are subsequently accreted by the central galaxy.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 272; Sept. 1
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The results of a search for giant, rapidly expanding shells of gas surrounding OB associations are recorded. Two out of thirteen nearby associations (Orion and Carina) show supershells of gas with radii of about 100 pc, expansion velocities of about 100 km/sec, and ages of about 400,000 years. Observations of the newly discovered Carina supershell are presented. It is suggested that these features are formed by supernova explosions in the associations. The birthrate of association supernovae than lies between 1.5 x 10 to the -14th/cu pc per/year and 10 to the -13th/cu pc per/year.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 250
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Redshifts and K magnitudes have been obtained for a small but complete sample of 22 galaxies with B magnitudes down to 24. In the luminosity range B = 23-24, the B-band galaxy counts are dominated by a population of small blue galaxies at z roughly 0.25, which may collectively contain as much baryonic matter as the normal galaxies. It is possible either that these earlier galaxies have undergone merging to create the present galaxy population, or that they represent a quite different galactic population which has now faded or disappeared. Either possibility has considerable implications for understanding of galaxy formation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 354; 460
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Morphological evidence is presented (in the form of 3-A-bandpass Fabry-Perot images made with a CCD camera) that the two bright emission-line systems seen toward the galaxy NGC 1275 arise from a high-velocity impact of a foreground galaxy upon the accretion flow of gas cooling in the center of the Perseus cluster. The uniquely high optical-line luminosity of NGC 1275, in comparison with other central galaxies in clusters observed to have cooling flows, may be explained by energy deposited during the collision. Using additional information from 21-cm and extinction measurements, a rough model of the interaction is developed. Problems remain with this model - such as the likelihood of a gas-rich system penetrating to the cluster center. The kinematic structure of the optically emitting gas shows additional complex structure near the nucleus of NGC 1275.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor (ISSN 0004-637X); 275; L27-L31
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  • 10
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A search has been made for H I shells in the 21-cm maps made by Heiles and Habing (1974) for absolute values of galactic latitude greater than 10 deg. A filter in the velocity dimension was used to enhance shell features over background gas. Positions, expansion velocities, column densities, and angular extents were measured for the 50 shells that were discovered. Incorporating distance estimates, masses and kinetic energies were estimated for the shells. A striking result was the failure of swept-up matter in a standard model for gas in the disk (density at the midplane approximately 1/cu cm; exponential scale height approximately 130 pc) to reproduce the observed shell column densities. While measured shell densities may be insufficiently corrected for background gas, the magnitude of this effect is too large to be explained by such a discrepancy alone. This may suggest that the shells seen in this survey occur in regions of relatively high density. The distribution of H I shells was compared with the distribution of other large-scale features in the Galaxy: H I shell structures are found to correlate with the positions of radio continuum loops I, II, and III, and to show little relation to the distribution of O and B stars.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 248
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