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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Observational evidences are presented showing that the Indian subcontinent and surrounding regions are subject to heavy loading of absorbing aerosols (dust and black carbon), with strong seasonality closely linked to the monsoon annual rainfall cycle. Increased loading of absorbing aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Plain in April-May is associated with a) increased heating of the upper troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau, b) an advance of the monsoon rainy season, and c) subsequent enhancement of monsoon rainfall over the South Asia subcontinent, and reduction over East Asia. Also presented are radiative transfer calculations showing how differential solar absorption by aerosols over bright surface (desert or snow cover land) compared to dark surface (vegetated land and ocean), may be instrumental in triggering an aerosol-monsoon large-scale circulation and water cycle feedback, consistent with the elevated heat pump hypothesis (Lau et al. 2006).
    Keywords: Geophysics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: In September 2006, NASA Goddard s mobile ground-based laboratories were deployed to Sal Island in Cape Verde (16.73degN, 22.93degW) to support the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA) field study. The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), a key instrument for spectrally characterizing the thermal IR, was used to retrieve the dust IR aerosol optical depths (AOTs) in order to examine the diurnal variability of airborne dust with emphasis on three separate dust events. AERI retrievals of dust AOT are compared with those from the coincident/collocated multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer (MFRSR), micropulse lidar (MPL), and NASA Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) sensors. The retrieved AOTs are then inputted into the Fu-Liou 1D radiative transfer model to evaluate local instantaneous direct longwave radiative effects (DRE(sub LW)) of dust at the surface in cloud-free atmospheres and its sensitivity to dust microphysical parameters. The top-of-atmosphere DRE(sub LW) and longwave heating rate profiles are also evaluated. Instantaneous surface DRE(sub LW) ranges from 2 to 10 W/sq m and exhibits a strong linear dependence with dust AOT yielding a DRE(sub LW) of 16 W/sq m per unit dust AOT. The DRE(sub LW) is estimated to be approx.42% of the diurnally averaged direct shortwave radiative effect at the surface but of opposite sign, partly compensating for the shortwave losses. Certainly nonnegligible, the authors conclude that DRE(sub LW) can significantly impact the atmospheric energetics, representing an important component in the study of regional climate variation.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); Volume 67; No. 4; 1048?1065
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: The amount of solar radiation reflected back to space or reaching the Earth's surface is primarily governed by the amount of cloud cover and, to a much lesser extent, by Rayleigh scatteri ng, aerosols, and various absorbing gases (e.g., O3, NO2, H2O). A useful measure of the effect of cloud plus aerosol cover is given by the amount that the 331 run Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) ofa scene exceeds the surfuce reflectivity for snow/ice-free scenes after Rayleigh scattering has been removed. Twenty-eight years of reflectivity data are available by overlapping data from several satellites: N7 (Nimbus 7, TOMS; 331 nm) from 1979 to 1992, SBUV-2 series (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, NOAA; 331 nm) 1985 to 2007, EP (Earth-Probe, TOMS; 331 nm) 1997 to 2006, SW (SeaWiFS; 412 nm) 1998 to 2006, and OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument; 331 nm) 2004-2007. Only N7 and SW have a sufficiently long data record, Sun-synchronous orbits, and are adequately calibrated for long-term reflectivity trend estimation. Reflectivity data derived from these instruments and the SBUV-2 series are compared during the overlapping years. Key issues in determining long-term reflecti vity changes that have occurred during the N7 and SW operating periods are discussed. The largest reflectivity changes in the 412 nm SW LER and 331 nm EP LER are found to occur near the equator and are associated with a large EI Nino-Southern Oscillation event. Most other changes that have occurred are regional, such as the apparent cloud decrease over northern Europe since 1998. The fractional occurrence (fraction of days) of high reflectivity values over Hudson Bay, Canada (snow/ice and clouds) appears to have decreased when comparing reflectivity data from 1980 to 1992 to 1997-2006, suggesting shorter duration of ice in Hudson Bay since 1980.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; Volume 114
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Studies are performed on both the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II (1985-1989) and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV)-Version 6 (1979-1986) global ozone vertical structure satellite data sets to determine the long-term trends in ozone as a function of altitude (pressure) and latitude. SAGE II data are only available during the period of increasing solar activity and show increases in ozone with time in the upper stratosphere which are attributed largely to rising solar activity. Looking at this data set independently, the solar effects and trends are highly coupled and cannot be clearly separated. However, a study of combined SBUV and SAGE II data over the 11-year solar cycle shows a clear response of ozone to 11-year solar variations and allows a decoupling of solar effects, quasibiennial oscillations (QBO), and trends. The detailed pattern of long-term ozone trends become clear using this approach. In the upper stratosphere, ozone depletion increases sharply with latitude. Global trends are fairly symmetric about the equator but are somewhat stronger in the Southern Hemisphere. Near the equator, some layers of ozone are decreasing with time while others appear to be increasing. Near 30 mb, there is evidence of intrusion to mid latitudes of high latitude negative trends. Near 15 mb, trends appear to be very weak. Near the tropopause there appears to be strong ozone depletion on a global scale. Two regions of unexpectedly strong ozone response to 11-year solar variations were detected: the first near 2 mb and the second near 30 mb at low latitudes and near 15 mb at mid latitudes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 14; 1; p. (1)201-(1)209
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Recent studies suggest that airborne Asian dust may not only play an important role in the regional radiation budget, but also influence the air quality over North America through long-range transport. In this paper, we use satellite data to investigate the long-term variability of airborne Asian dust as well as the daily variation of the dust aerosol distribution. By combining the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) wind data, our analysis shows a strong correlation between the generation of dust storms in the region and the passage of springtime weather fronts. This is consistent with earlier studies performed by other researchers. According to both the Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data the Takla Makan desert, the Gobi desert, and the and region of Inner Mongolia are major sources of the eastward-flowing airborne Asian dust. Heavily populated areas in eastern China (e.g., Beijing) are often on the primary path of the dust storms originating in these desert regions. The increasing desertification north of the Beijing region has served to exacerbate problems stemming from these storms. The time series derived from 20 years of TOMS aerosol index data shows the first significant satellite evidence of the atmospheric effect of increasing desertification, indicating that the amount of dust blown eastward has increased strongly during the past few years including the year 2000.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: The total column ozone response to 11-year solar ultraviolet (UV) variations is estimated here from the observed response to 27-day solar variations adjusted for the theoretical difference between the 27-day response and 11-year response. The estimate is tested by comparing two data sets where long-term drifts have been removed, the Nimbus 7 TOMS Version 6 total column ozone and the 280 nm core-to-wing ratio (a proxy for solar UV variations). The 365-day running means of data area-weighted between 40 deg N to 40 deg S latitude give a 1.9% ozone variation related to the 11-year solar cycle compared with the estimate of 1.8%. Estimates of linear trends were reduced by a factor of 2 by including solar effects. The standard deviation from the empirical model was reduced from 1.0 to 0.6 Dobson Units, by including the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), but the QBO did not significantly alter trend estimates. Both the ozone responses to 27-day and 11-year solar variations were considerably stronger than predicted by a 2-D theoretical model.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 14; 9; p. (9)199-(9)209
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: Analysis of sun photometer measured and satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) data has shown that major aerosol pollution events with very high fine mode AOD (〉1.0 in mid-visible) in the China/Korea/Japan region are often observed to be associated with significant cloud cover. This makes remote sensing of these events difficult even for high temporal resolution sun photometer measurements. Possible physical mechanisms for these events that have high AOD include a combination of aerosol humidification, cloud processing, and meteorological co-variation with atmospheric stability and convergence. The new development of Aerosol Robotic network (AERONET) Version 3 Level 2 AOD with improved cloud screening algorithms now allow for unprecedented ability to monitor these extreme fine mode pollution events. Further, the Spectral Deconvolution Algorithm (SDA) applied to Level 1 data (L1; no cloud screening) provides an even more comprehensive assessment of fine mode AOD than L2 in current and previous data versions. Studying the 2012 winter-summer period, comparisons of AERONET L1 SDA daily average fine mode AOD data showed that Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite remote sensing of AOD often did not retrieve and/or identify some of the highest fine mode AOD events in this region. Also, compared to models that include data assimilation of satellite retrieved AOD, the L1 SDA fine mode AOD was significantly higher in magnitude, particularly for the highest AOD events that were often associated with significant cloudiness.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN57373 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (ISSN 2169-897X) (e-ISSN 2169-8996); 123; 10; 5560-5587
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Absorbing smoke or mineral dust aerosols above clouds (AAC) are a frequent occurrence in certain regions and seasons. Operational aerosol retrievals from sensors like MODIS omit AAC because they are designed to work only over cloud-free scenes. However, AAC can in principle be quantified by these sensors in some situations (e.g. Jethva et al., 2013; Meyer et al., 2013). We present a summary of some analyses of the potential of MODIS-like instruments for this purpose, along with two case studies using airborne observations from the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS; http://geo.arc.nasa.gov/sgg/AATS-website/) as a validation data source for a preliminary AAC algorithm applied to MODIS measurements. AAC retrievals will eventually be added to the MODIS Deep Blue (Hsu et al., 2013) processing chain.
    Keywords: Geophysics; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN24116 , 2015 MODIS-VIIRS Science Team Meeting; 18-22 May 2015; Silver Spring, MD; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: New over-ocean aerosol models are developed by integrating the inversion data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun/sky radiometers with a database for the optical properties of tri-axial ellipsoid particles. The new aerosol models allow more accurate retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in the case of high AOD (AOD greater than 0.3). The aerosol models are categorized by using the fine-mode fraction (FMF) at 550 nm and the singlescattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm from the AERONET inversion data to include a variety of aerosol types found around the globe. For each aerosol model, the changes in the aerosol optical properties (AOPs) as functions of AOD are considered to better represent aerosol characteristics. Comparisons of AODs between AERONET and MODIS for the period from 2003 to 2010 show that the use of the new aerosol models enhances the AOD accuracy with a Pearson coefficient of 0.93 and a regression slope of 0.99 compared to 0.92 and 0.85 calculated using the MODIS Collection 5 data. Moreover, the percentage of data within an expected error of +/-(0.03 + 0.05xAOD) is increased from 62 percent to 64 percent for overall data and from 39 percent to 51 percent for AOD greater than 0.3. Errors in the retrieved AOD are further characterized with respect to the Angstrom exponent (AE), scattering angle, SSA, and air mass factor (AMF). Due to more realistic AOPs assumptions, the new algorithm generally reduces systematic errors in the retrieved AODs compared with the current operational algorithm. In particular, the underestimation of fine-dominated AOD and the scattering angle dependence of dust-dominated AOD are significantly mitigated as results of the new algorithm's improved treatment of aerosol size distribution and dust particle nonsphericity.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN8829 , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics; 12; 15; 7087–7102
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The aerosol products retrieved using the MODIS collection 5.1 Deep Blue algorithm have provided useful information about aerosol properties over bright-reflecting land surfaces, such as desert, semi-arid, and urban regions. However, many components of the C5.1 retrieval algorithm needed to be improved; for example, the use of a static surface database to estimate surface reflectances. This is particularly important over regions of mixed vegetated and non- vegetated surfaces, which may undergo strong seasonal changes in land cover. In order to address this issue, we develop a hybrid approach, which takes advantage of the combination of pre-calculated surface reflectance database and normalized difference vegetation index in determining the surface reflectance for aerosol retrievals. As a result, the spatial coverage of aerosol data generated by the enhanced Deep Blue algorithm has been extended from the arid and semi-arid regions to the entire land areas.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN9142 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres; 118; 16; 9296-9315
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