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  • 1
    Call number: MOP S 11934
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: S. 23-43
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: MOP Per 555(11)
    In: Contributions from the Cloud Physics Group
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: V, 166 S.
    Series Statement: Contributions from the Cloud Physics Group : Research report 11
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Call number: MOP Per 555(9)
    In: Contributions from the Cloud Physics Group
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: III, 127 S.
    Series Statement: Contributions from the Cloud Physics Group : Research report 9
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    San Diego [u.a.] : Acad. Press
    Associated volumes
    Call number: AWI A11-94-0226
    In: International geophysics series
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: Preface. - Introduction. - List of symbols. - PART I FUNDAMENTALS. - Chapter 1 Identification of clouds. - Chapter 2 Atmospheric dynamics. - Chapter 3 Cloud Microphysics. - Chapter 4 Radar Meteorology. - PART II PHENOMENA. - Chapter 5 Shallow-layer clouds. - Chapter 6 Nimbostratus. - Chapter 7 Cumulus dynamics. - Chapter 8 Thunderstorms. - Chapter 9 Mesoscale convective systems. - Chapter 10 Clouds in hurricanes. - Chapter 11 Precipitating clouds in extratropical cyclones. - Chapter 12 Orographic clouds. - References. - Index
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXIX, 573 S.
    ISBN: 0123568803
    Series Statement: International geophysics series 53
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The horizontal precipitation structure of cloud clusters observed over the South China Sea during the Winter Monsoon Experiment (WMONEX) is analyzed using a convective-stratiform technique (CST) developed by Adler and Negri (1988). The technique was modified by altering the method for identifying convective cells in the satellite data, accounting for the extremely cold cloud tops characteristic of the WMONEX region, and modifying the threshold infrared temperature for the boundary of the stratiform rain area. The precipitation analysis was extended to the entire history of the cloud cluster by applying the modified CST to IR imagery from geosynchronous-satellite observations. The ship and aircraft data from the later period of the cluster's lifetime make it possible to check the locations of convective and stratiform precipitation identified by the CST using in situ observations. The extended CST is considered to be effective for determining the climatology of the convective-stratiform structure of tropical cloud clusters.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Meteorological Society of Japan, Journal (ISSN 0026-1165); 68; 37-63
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: A twi-dimensional kinematic model has been used to diagnose the thermodynamic, water vapor, and hydrometeor fields of the stratiform clouds associated with a mesoscale tropical cloud cluster. The model incorporates ice- and water-cloud microphysics, visible and infrared radiation, and convective adjustment. It is intended to determine the relative contributions of radiation, mycrophysics, and turbulence to diabatic heating, and the effects that radiation has on the water budget of the cluster in the absence of dynamical interactions. The model has been initialized with thermodynamic fields and wind velocities diagnosed from a GATE tropical squall line. It is found that radiation does not directly affect the water budget of the stratiform region, and any radiative effect on hydrometeors must involve interaction with dynamics.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 48; 903-922
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The model for the idealized tropical mesoscale convective system proposed by Houze (1982) is examined. Observations of the structure of mesoscale convective systems are used to determine the applicability of the conceptual model. Data on the vertical distribution of vertical air motion in the convective and stratiform regions of mesoscale convective systems are discussed and the treatment of this distribution in Houze's model is considered.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Royal Meteorological Society, Quarterly Journal (ISSN 0035-9009); 115; 425-461
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Steiner and Houze showed from ground validation data that the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite Precipitation Radar's (PR's) twice daily only sampling should lead to an uncertainty of approximately 20% in rain estimates. They further showed that the uncertainties are smallest at the 5-7.5 km level. Schumacher and Houze used Kwajalein ground validation data to show that the TRMM PR misses only 2.3% of the near surface rainfall but does not see 46% of the area where rain occurs, because of the 17 dBZ PR reflectivity threshold. Houze discusses how the TRMM data extend earlier tropical convective studies to global coverage of the vertical profile of latent heating via the TRMM PR''s ability to distinguish and globally map convective and stratiform precipitation. Process studies carried out under this TRMM grant Yuter and Houze and Yuter et al. studied ship-based radar observations in the tropical eastern Pacific ITCZ. The eastern Pacific precipitation process is different from the western Pacific (the COARE area); rain is heavier but the clouds are not as deep. These process differences may affect the ability to remotely sense precipitation accurately in the two regions. Satellite microwave data were able to detect the precipitation as long as the rain areas exceeded 10 km in dimension. However, the microwave algorithms had difficulty distinguishing light and heavy rain. Satellite IR algorithms only partially detected the rain because the tops of the smaller and more short-lived rain clouds were sometimes not cold enough for the IR algorithms to detect them. Houze et al. focused on the west Pacific precipitating mesoscale convective systems and showed how their precipitation and internal dynamics vary in relation to the slowly varying large-scale heating-driven circulation, which has a structure described by a combination of Kelvin and Rossby wave response to the near-equatorial convective heating constituted by the mesoscale convective systems. Ship and aircraft radar data were used in this study.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Results are presented of two numerical simulations of the mechanism involved in the dehydration of air, using the model of Churchill (1988) and Churchill and Houze (1990) which combines the water and ice physics parameterizations and IR and solar-radiation parameterization with a convective adjustment scheme in a kinematic nondynamic framework. One simulation, a cirrus cloud simulation, was to test the Danielsen (1982) hypothesis of a dehydration mechanism for the stratosphere; the other was to simulate the mesoscale updraft in order to test an alternative mechanism for 'freeze-drying' the air. The results show that the physical processes simulated in the mesoscale updraft differ from those in the thin-cirrus simulation. While in the thin-cirrus case, eddy fluxes occur in response to IR radiative destabilization, and, hence, no net transfer occurs between troposphere and stratosphere, the mesosphere updraft case has net upward mass transport into the lower stratosphere.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Conference on Atmospheric Radiation; July 23-27, 1990; San Francisco, CA; United States
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A simple one-dimensional microphysical retrieval model is developed for estimating vertical profiles of liquid and frozen hydrometeor mixing ratios from observed vertical profiles of area-mean vertical velocity in regions of convective and/or stratiform precipitation. The mean vertical-velocity profiles can be obtained from Doppler radar (single and dual) or other means. The one-dimensional results are shown to be in good agreement with two-dimensional microphysical fields from a previous study. Sensitivity tests are performed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Royal Meteorological Society, Quarterly Journal (ISSN 0035-9009); 121; 521; p. 23-53
    Format: text
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