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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Ruapehu is a very active andesitic composite volcano which has erupted five times in the past 10 years. Historical events have included phreatomagmatic eruptions through a hot crater lake and two dome-building episodes. Ski-field facilities, road and rail bridges, alpine huts and portions of a major hydroelectrical power scheme have been damaged or destroyed by these eruptions. Destruction of a rail bridge by a lahar in 1953 caused the loss of 151 lives. Other potential hazards, with Holocene analogues, include Strombolian and sub-Plinian explosive eruptions, lava extrusion from summit or flank vents and collapse of portions of the volcano. The greatest hazards would result from renewed phreatomagmatic activity in Crater Lake or collapse of its weak southeastern wall. Three types of hazard zones can be defined for the phreatomagmatic events: inner zones of extreme risk from ballistic blocks and surges, outer zones of disruption to services from fall deposits and zones of risk from lahars, which consist of tongues down major river valleys. Ruapehu is prone to destructive lahars because of the presence of 107 m3 of hot acid water in Crater Lake and because of the surrounding summit glaciers and ice fields. The greatest risks at Ruapehu are to thousands of skiers on the ski field which crosses a northern lahar path. Three early warning schemes have been established to deal with the lahar problems. Collapse of the southeastern confining wall would release much of the lake into an eastern lahar path causing widespread damage. This is a long-term risk which could only be mitigated by drainage of the lake.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Rothenberg scoria cone Eifel formed by an alternation of three Strombolian and three phreatomagmatic eruptive phases. Eruptions took place from up to six vents on a 600 m-long fissure, building an early tuff ring and then two coalescing scoria cones. Strombolian volcanism dominated volumetrically, as the supply of external water was severely limited. Magma/water interaction only occurred during the opening stages of eruption at any vent, when discharge rates were low and the fragmentation surface was below the water table. The phreatomagmatic deposits consist of relatively well-sorted fall beds and only minor surge deposits. They contain juvenile clasts with a wide range of vesicularity and grain size, implying considerable heterogeneity in the assemblage of material ejected by the phreatomagmatic explosions. the transition from phreatomagmatic to Strombolian eruption at any vent was rapid and irreversible, and Strombolian volcanism persisted even when eruption rates are inferred to have waned at the close of each eruptive phase as, by then, the fragmentation surfaces were high in the growing cones and water was denied access to the magma. The Strombolian deposits are relatively homogenous, consisting of alternating coarser- and finer-grained, well-sorted fall beds erupted during periods of open-vent eruption and partial blockage of the vent respectively. The intervals of Strombolian eruption were always a delicate balance between discharge of freely degassing magma and processes such as ponding of degassed magma in the vent, collapse of the growing cones, and repeated recycling of clasts through the vent. Clear evidence of the instability of the Rothenberg cones is preserved in numerous unconformities within deposits of the inner walls of the cones. The close of Strombolian phases was probably marked by a decreasing supply of magma to the vents accompanied by ponding and stagnation of lava in the craters.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract An exceptionally well-exposed, ancient, intra-arc basin in the Permian Takitimu Group of New Zealand contains 14 km of interbedded primary volcanic and marine volcaniclastic rocks of basaltic to rhyodacitic composition. These are the products of subaerial and submarine arc volcanism and closely associated turbidite sedimentation. The Takitimu oceanic arc/basin setting formed a dynamic closed sedimentary system in which large volumes of volcaniclastic material generated at the arc was rapidly redeposited in marine basins flanking the eruptive centres. Volcanism probably included (1) moderate- to deep-water extrusion of lava and deposition of hyaloclastite, (2) extrusive and explosive eruptions from shallow marine to marginally emergent volcanoes in or on the margin of the basin, and (3) Plinian and phreato-Plinian eruptions from more distant subaerial vents along the arc. Much of the newly erupted material was rapidly transported to the adjacent marine basin by debris flows, slumping and sliding. Hemipelagic sedimentation predominated on the outer margin of the basin, infrequently interrupted by deposition of ash from the most explosive arc volcanism and the arrival of extremely dilute turbidites. Turbidite sedimentation prevailed in the remainder of the basin, producing a thick prograding volcaniclastic apron adjacent to the arc. The volcaniclastic strata closely resemble classic turbidite deposits, and show similar lateral facies variations to submarine fan deposits. Study of such sequences provides insight into poorly understood processes in modern arc-related basins.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Bulletin of volcanology 51 (1989), S. 451-462 
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The vesicularity of juvenile clasts in pyroclastic deposits gives information on the relative timing of vesiculation and fragmentation, and on the role of magmatic volatiles versus external water in driving explosive eruptions. The vesicularity index and range are defined as the arithmetic mean and total spread of vesicularity values, respectively. Clast densities are measured for the 16–32 mm size fraction by water immersion techniques and converted to vesicularities using measured dense-rock equivalent densities. The techniques used are applied to four case studies involving magmas of widely varying viscosities and discharge rates: Kilauea Iki 1959 (basalt), Eifel tuff rings (basanite), Mayor Island cone-forming deposits (peralkaline rhyolite) and Taupo 1800 B.P. (calc-alkaline rhyolite). Previous theoretical studies suggested that a spectrum of clast vesicularities should be seen, depending on the magma viscosity, eruption rate, and the presence and timing of magma: water interaction. The new data are consistent with these predictions. In magmatic “dry” eruptions the vesicularity index lies uniformly in the range 70%–80% regardless of magma viscosity. For high viscosities and eruption rates the vesicularity ranges are narrow (〈 25%), but broaden to between 30% and 50% as the viscosity and eruption rates are lowered and the volatiles and magma can de-couple. In phreatomagmatic “wet” eruptions, widely varying clast vesicularities reflect complex variations in the relative timing of vesiculation and water-induced fragmentation. Magma:water interaction at an early stage greatly reduces the vesicularity indices (〈 40%) and broadens the ranges (as high as 80%), whereas late-stage interaction has only a minor effect on the index and broadens the range to a limited extent. Clast vesicularity represents a useful third parameter in addition to dispersal and fragmentation to characterise pyroclastic deposits.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: Key words Explosive volcanism ; Magmatic ; Phreatomagmatic ; Crater Hill ; Basalt
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  A series of alternating phreatomagmatic ("wet") and magmatic ("dry") basaltic pyroclastic deposits forming the Crater Hill tuff ring in New Zealand contains one unit (M1) which can only be interpreted as the products of mixing of ejecta from simultaneous wet and dry explosions at different portions of a multiple vent system. The principal characteristics of M1 are (a) rapid lateral changes in the thicknesses of, and proportions in juvenile components in individual beds, and (b) wide ranges of juvenile clast densities in every sample. M1 appears to have been associated with an elongate source of highly variable and fluctuating magma : water ratios and magma discharge rates. This contrasts with the only other documented mixed (wet and dry) basaltic pyroclastic deposits where mixing from two point sources of quite different but stable character has been inferred.
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  • 6
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    GSA, Geological Society of America
    In:  Geology, 34 (8). pp. 677-680.
    Publication Date: 2019-05-07
    Description: We propose a classification scheme that unifies terminology for all primary volcaniclastic deposits, assigns initial depositional mechanism as the basis for classifying them, and refines the grain-size classes used to pigeonhole samples. By primary volcaniclastic deposits and rocks, we mean the entire range of fragmental products deposited directly by explosive or effusive eruption. This definition thus focuses on the primary transport and deposition of particles, rather than those processes by which the particles form or the nature of the fluid in which they are carried. We favor this approach for all primary volcaniclastic deposits because they typically contain assemblages of clasts formed by different processes and/or at different times that are subsequently brought together during eruption.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Almost pure andradite and intermediate members of the andradite-grossular series (gros40–49, and 47–54, py0–3, alm0–3, spess0–2, hydrogarnet0–3), often framboidal in habit, are widespread in metabasites including lavas, minor intrusions, and volcanic sandstones and breccias metamorphosed under prehnite-pumpellyite and pumpellyite-actinolite facies conditions, possibly extending into the zeolite facies. Coexisting phases include iron-rich epidotes (100 Fe*/Fe*+Al=22–34), pumpellyite, prehnite, actinolite, and chlorite, electron microprobe analyses of which are given, as well as quartz, albite, and calcite. Zoisite (100 Fe*/Fe*+Al=1–5) and iron-poor epidote (100 Fe*/Fe*+Al=11–18) occur in 2 rocks in pseudomorphs after plagioclase together with more iron-rich epidote, but not in close association with the garnets. Coexisting pumpellyite is iron-rich (FeO* 9–14%) in the prehnite-pumpellyite facies and iron-poor (FeO* 5%) in the pumpellyiteactinolite facies. Chlorites and actinolites vary widely and sympathetically in FeO/MgO+FeO ratio. Andradite is also described from a stilpnomelane-actinolite-hematite-bearing andradite quartzite of the pumpellyite-actinolite facies. Conditions of formation involved temperatures of 300 to 400 ° or less, at pressures up to a few kilobars. A wide range of oxygen fugacities is possible, but $$\mu _{CO_2 } $$ in the fluid phase was low. Grandite and chlorite are incompatible in the pumpellyite-actinolite and greenschist facies in the presence of quartz but the 2 minerals occur together in some pumpellyite-actinolite facies assemblages as a result of incomplete reaction and/or local deficiency in silica. In the greenschist facies the association is replaced by epidote-actinolite±hematite and sodic amphibole. Whereas at medium to high grades of metamorphism andradite and grandite are characteristic of skarns irrespective of $$\mu _{CO_2 } $$ , at very low grades they are found in mafic volcanic rocks and volcanogenic sediments as well as in certain cherty rocks of unusual composition, rodingites, and serpentinites, where $$\mu _{CO_2 } $$ was very low.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: explosive volcanism ; dome-building volcanism ; phreatomagmatic acticity ; fall deposits ; surge deposits ; rhyolite ; Maroa volcano
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The 14 ka Puketarata eruption of Maroa caldera in Taupo Volcanic Zone was a dome-related event in which the bulk of the 0.25 km3 of eruption products were emplaced as phreatomagmatic fall and surge deposits. A rhyolitic dike encountered shallow groundwater during emplacement along a NE-trending normal fault, leading to shallow-seated explosions characterised by low to moderate water/magma ratios. The eruption products consist of two lava domes, a proximal tuff ring, three phreatic collapse craters, and a widespread fall deposit. The pyroclastic deposits contain dominantly dense juvenile clasts and few foreign lithics, and relate to very shallow-level disruption of the growing dome and its feeder dike with relatively little involvement of country rock. The distal fall deposit, representing 88% of the eruption products is, despite its uniform appearance and apparently subplinian dispersal, a composite feature equivalent to numerous discrete proximal phreatomagmatic lapilli fall layers, each deposited from a short-lived eruption column. The Puketarata products are subdivided into four units related to successive phases of:(A) shallow lava intrusion and initial dome growth; (B) rapid growth and destruction of dome lobes; (C) slower, sustained dome growth and restriction of explosive disruption to the dome margins; and (D) post-dome withdrawal of magma and crater-collapse. Phase D was phreatic, phases A and C had moderate water: magma ratios, and phase B a low water: magma ratio. Dome extrusion was most rapid during phase B, but so was destruction, and hence dome growth was largely accomplished during phase C. The Puketarata eruption illustrates how vent geometry and the presence of groundwater may control the style of silicic volcanism. Early activity was dominated by these external influences and sustained dome growth only followed after effective exclusion of external water from newly emplaced magma.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: Clast recycling ; juvenile clasts ; basaltic phreatomagmatic volcanism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The juvenile content of phreatomagmatic deposits contains both ‘first-cycle’ juvenile clasts derived from magma at the instant of eruption, and recycled juvenile clasts, which were fragmented and first ejected by earlier explosions during the eruption, but fell back or collapsed into the vent. Recycled juvenile clasts are similar to accessory and accidental lithics in that they contribute no heat to further magma: water interaction, but previously no effective criteria have been defined to separate them from ‘first-cycle’ juvenile clasts. We have investigated componentry parameters (vesicularity, clast morphology and extent of mud-coating) which, in specific circumstances, can distinguish between first-cycle juvenile clasts, involved in only one explosion, and such recycled juvenile clasts. Phreatomagmatic fall deposits commonly show gross grainsize and sorting characteristics identical to deposits of purely ‘dry’ or magmatic eruptions. However the abundance of non-juvenile clasts in pyroclastic deposits is a sensitive indicator of the involvement of external water. If this component is calculated including recycled juvenile clasts with accidental and accessory clasts the contrast is even more striking. Data from a Holocene maar deposit in Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, suggest that the first-cycle juvenile component of the deposits is less than one-third of that determined by simple juvenile:lithic:crystal componentry.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: Stratovolcano Explosive volcanism Tephra remobilisation Lahars Ruapehu Volcanic hazards
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract. A feature of small-scale explosive volcanism at stratovolcanoes is the rapid destruction of primary near-vent pyroclastic deposits by sedimentary processes. A protracted series of explosive eruptions of moderate volume from September 1995 until July 1996 at Mount Ruapehu in New Zealand, its largest eruptive episode this century, afforded an opportunity to study these remobilisation processes in detail. All significant sub-plinian eruptions occurred in mid-winter, forming metre-thick tephra accumulations on steep slopes covered with perennial ice and seasonal snow. Subsequent events demonstrated the variety and complexity of the erosion processes that remobilise primary pyroclasts in such a setting. These processes arose from the complex interactions of tephra with snow and ice, and liquid water in varying proportions, and were very diverse in nature and scale. Their effectiveness can be gauged from the fact that there is almost no stratigraphic record of any of the 〉40 eruption episodes recorded in the past 100 years at Ruapehu. Syn-eruptive remobilisation processes included the generation of eruption-triggered lahars by the ejection of hot water from the Crater Lake. Post-eruptive interactions mainly remobilised fall deposits from proximal areas, and included rain-triggered lahars, which were among the largest and most hazardous events with the greatest distal impacts.
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