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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-24
    Description: Introduction: Thawing arctic subsea permafrost is a source of organic carbon in deep sediment layers. The permafrost that is at its thermal equilibrium releases biologically produced methane and a deep sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) is formed due to sulfate-rich overlaying marine sediment layers. The process of methane oxidation in this anaerobic environment has been suggested1 but AOM associated microbial communities remain to be identified. Objectives: We aimed at providing evidence for anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaeal communities at the deep SMTZ of the north-east Siberian Laptev Sea shelf. Material and methods: Two sediment cores were retrieved (77 m and 47.4 m deep) from the coastal shelf north of Cape Mamontov Klyk ‘C2’ (11.5 km offshore) and west to the Buor Khaya Peninsula ‘BK2’ (800 m offshore), respectively. Methane and sulfate concentrations as well as 13C isotope values of CH4 were measured and correlated with molecular analysis of microbial communities along the thaw front. Results: At the thaw front of BK2, at 23.7 meters below sea floor (mbsf) biologically produced methane (13 C= -70‰ VPDB) gets oxidized (13C= -29.8 ‰ VPDB)1. At the same depth, we found an increase in functional genes of methanogenic archaea (mcrA) and sulfate reducing bacteria (dsrB) analysed by quantitative PCR. Massive parallel tag-sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed an increase of ANME-2a/2b and ANME-2d sequences towards the thaw front in both cores. At the thaw front of the BK2 core, typical ANME-2 partners of the Desulfobacterales2were found to dominate the sulfate reducing bacterial community, whereas Desulfobaccasequences dominate in all samples of the C2 core. Theoretical methane oxidation rates (0.4-6 nmol cm-3d-1)1based on estimated methane fluxes showed higher values than typically found in subsurface sediments and are more similar to rates of margin SMTZs3. Conclusion: Our data indicate that active anaerobic methane oxidizer communities at the thaw front of subsea permafrost prevent methane from being released into the water column and subsequently to the atmosphere. Further analyses on lipid biomarkers and 14C-CH4isotopic rate measurements will determine how active these communities are in situ. 1. Overduin, P. P. et al.Methane oxidation following submarine permafrost degradation: Measurements from a central Laptev Sea shelf borehole. J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosciences2014JG002862 (2015). 2. Schreiber, L., Holler, T., Knittel, K., Meyerdierks, A. & Amann, R. Identification of the dominant sulfate-reducing bacterial partner of anaerobic methanotrophs of the ANME-2 clade. Environ. Microbiol.12, 2327-2340 (2010). 3. Knittel, K. & Boetius, A. Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane: Progress with an Unknown Process. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 63, 311-334 (2009).
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: Sovereign defaults enable the defaulting countries to eliminate its debt, which raises the question why sovereign debt can exist, given that lenders fear losing their money. Thus, a cost burden must exist for a country in order to achieve the government paying its debt. Historically, sovereign defaults mostly occur in times of low GDP growth rates. This makes it impossible to isolate the defaults impact on macroeconomic fundamentals since the vice-versa causality cannot be ruled out when a traditional regression analysis is applied. With this, it is not conceivable to quantify the defaults idiosyncratic costs. An instrument variable for a sovereign default has not been found and it is likely that such an instrument does not exist at all. This paper applies a natural experiment approach to circumvent the above mentioned causality problem. Odious debt cases, as well as scenarios where the government leaders have argued that the government debt is illegitimate, are applied to quantify the sovereign default s impact on macroeconomic fundamentals. Since only few of these cases are available, a panel analysis is conducted, using the Abadie and Gardeazabal (2003) and Abadie et al. (2010) synthetic control method for comparative case studies, in order to generate synthetic counterfactual countries that have the same macroeconomic fundamentals in the pre-default period. In addition to that, the creditors behavior towards the defaulting country is analyzed, giving hints that the GDP, FDI s, private lending as well as development aid may decline after the non-necessary default is announced.
    Keywords: C82 ; F34 ; F51 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-10-24
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: Warming of the Arctic led to an increase in permafrost temperatures by about 0.3 �C during the last decade. Permafrost warming is associated with increasing sediment water content, permeability, and diffusivity and could in the long term alter microbial community composition and abundance even before permafrost thaws. We studied the long-term effect (up to 2500 years) of submarine permafrost warming on microbial communities along an onshore–offshore transect on the Siberian Arctic Shelf displaying a natural temperature gradient of more than 10 �C. We analysed the in situ development of bacterial abundance and community composition through total cell counts (TCCs), quantitative PCR of bacterial gene abundance, and amplicon sequencing and correlated the microbial community data with temperature, pore water chemistry, and sediment physicochemical parameters. On timescales of centuries, permafrost warming coincided with an overall decreasing microbial abundance, whereas millennia after warming microbial abundance was similar to cold onshore permafrost. In addition, the dissolved organic carbon content of all cores was lowest in submarine permafrost after millennial-scale warming. Based on correlation analysis, TCC, unlike bacterial gene abundance, showed a significant rank-based negative correlation with increasing temperature, while bacterial gene copy numbers showed a strong negative correlation with salinity. Bacterial community composition correlated only weakly with temperature but strongly with the pore water stable isotopes �18O and �D, as well as with depth. The bacterial community showed substantial spatial variation and an overall dominance of Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Proteobacteria, which are amongst the microbial taxa that were also found to be active in other frozen permafrost environments. We suggest that, millennia after permafrost warming by over 10 �C, microbial community composition and abundance show some indications for proliferation but mainly reflect the sedimentation history and paleoenvironment and not a direct effect through warming.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-05-06
    Description: Warming of the Arctic led to an increase of permafrost temperatures by about 0.3 °C during the last decade. Permafrost warming is associated with increasing sediment water content, permeability and diffusivity and could on the long-term alter microbial community composition and abundance even before permafrost thaws. We studied the long-term effect (up to 2500 years) of submarine permafrost warming on microbial communities along an onshore-offshore transect on the Siberian Arctic Shelf displaying a natural temperature gradient of more than 10 °C. We analysed the in-situ development of bacterial abundance and community composition through total cell counts (TCC), quantitative PCR of bacterial gene abundance and amplicon sequencing, and correlated the microbial community data with temperature, pore water chemistry and sediment physicochemical parameters. On time-scales of centuries, permafrost warming coincided with an overall decreasing microbial abundance while millennia after warming microbial abundance was similar to cold onshore permafrost and DOC content was least. Based on correlation analysis TCC unlike bacterial gene abundance showed a significant rank-based negative correlation with increasing temperature while both TCC and bacterial gene copy numbers showed a negative correlation with salinity. Bacterial community composition correlated only weakly with temperature but strongly with pore-water stable isotope signatures and depth, while it showed no correlation with salinity. Microbial community composition showed substantial spatial variation and an overall dominance of Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes and Proteobacteria which are amongst the microbial taxa that were found to be active in other frozen permafrost environments as well. We suggest that, millennia after permafrost warming by over 10 °C, microbial community composition and abundance show some indications for proliferation but mainly reflect the sedimentation history and paleo-environment and not a direct effect through warming.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: James Ross Island (JRI) offers the exceptional opportunity to study pedogenesis without the influence of vascular plants or faunal activities (e.g. penguin rookeries) in a landscape marking the transition from maritime to continental Antarctica. Here, primarily microbial communities control soil biological processes and affect soil chemical and physical properties in a semiarid region with mean annual precipitation from 200 to 500 mm and mean air temperature below 0 °C. The impact of climate change on soil forming processes in this part of Antarctica and its related microbial processes is unknown. In this study, two soil profiles from JRI (one at St. Martha Cove – SMC, and another at Brandy Bay – BB) were investigated by combining pedological, geochemical and microbiological methods. The soil profiles are similar in respect to topographic position and parent material but are spatially separated by an orographic barrier and therefore represent lee- and windward locations towards the mainly south-westerly winds. Opposing trends in the depth functions of pH and differences in EC-values are caused by additional input of bases by sea spray at BB, the site close to the Prince Gustav Channel. Both soils are classified as Cryosols, dominated by bacterial taxa such as Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadates and Chloroflexi. A shift in the dominant taxa in both soils and an increased abundance of multiple operational taxonomic units (OTUs) related to potential chemolithoautotrophic Acidoferrobacteraceae was observed. This shift was accompanied by a change in soil microstructure below 20 cm depth, with potential impact on water availability and matter fluxes. Multivariate statistics revealed correlations between the microbial community structure and soil parameters such as chloride, sulfate, calcium and organic carbon contents, grain size distribution, as well as the pedogenic oxide ratio.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union.
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  • 8
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: The rewetting of drained peatlands alters peat geochemistry and often leads to sustained elevated methane emission. Although this methane is produced entirely by microbial activity, the distribution and abundance of methane-cycling microbes in rewetted peatlands, especially in fens, is rarely described. In this study, we compare the community composition and abundance of methane-cycling microbes in relation to peat porewater geochemistry in two rewetted fens in northeastern Germany, a coastal brackish fen and a freshwater riparian fen, with known high methane fluxes. We utilized 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on 16S rRNA, mcrA, and pmoA genes to determine microbial community composition and the abundance of total bacteria, methanogens, and methanotrophs. Electrical conductivity (EC) was more than 3 times higher in the coastal fen than in the riparian fen, averaging 5.3 and 1.5 mS cm−1, respectively. Porewater concentrations of terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) varied within and among the fens. This was also reflected in similarly high intra- and inter-site variations of microbial community composition. Despite these differences in environmental conditions and electron acceptor availability, we found a low abundance of methanotrophs and a high abundance of methanogens, represented in particular by Methanosaetaceae, in both fens. This suggests that rapid (re)establishment of methanogens and slow (re)establishment of methanotrophs contributes to prolonged increased methane emissions following rewetting.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-10-14
    Description: Warming of the Arctic led to an increase in permafrost temperatures by about 0.3 ∘C during the last decade. Permafrost warming is associated with increasing sediment water content, permeability, and diffusivity and could in the long term alter microbial community composition and abundance even before permafrost thaws. We studied the long-term effect (up to 2500 years) of submarine permafrost warming on microbial communities along an onshore–offshore transect on the Siberian Arctic Shelf displaying a natural temperature gradient of more than 10 ∘C. We analysed the in situ development of bacterial abundance and community composition through total cell counts (TCCs), quantitative PCR of bacterial gene abundance, and amplicon sequencing and correlated the microbial community data with temperature, pore water chemistry, and sediment physicochemical parameters. On timescales of centuries, permafrost warming coincided with an overall decreasing microbial abundance, whereas millennia after warming microbial abundance was similar to cold onshore permafrost. In addition, the dissolved organic carbon content of all cores was lowest in submarine permafrost after millennial-scale warming. Based on correlation analysis, TCC, unlike bacterial gene abundance, showed a significant rank-based negative correlation with increasing temperature, while bacterial gene copy numbers showed a strong negative correlation with salinity. Bacterial community composition correlated only weakly with temperature but strongly with the pore water stable isotopes δ18O and δD, as well as with depth. The bacterial community showed substantial spatial variation and an overall dominance of Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Proteobacteria, which are amongst the microbial taxa that were also found to be active in other frozen permafrost environments. We suggest that, millennia after permafrost warming by over 10 ∘C, microbial community composition and abundance show some indications for proliferation but mainly reflect the sedimentation history and paleoenvironment and not a direct effect through warming.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union.
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