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  • 1
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Pentagold molybdenum cluster ; trigold cobalt cluster ; [(Ph3PAu)5Mo(CO)4]PF6 ; (Ph3PAu)3Co(CO)3 ; synthesis ; crystal structure ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Cluster Synthesis by Photolysis of R3PAuN3. VIII. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of [(Ph3PAu)5Mo(CO)4]PF6 · CH2Cl2 and (Ph3PAu)3Co(CO)3Photolysis of a mixture of Ph2PAuN3 and Mo(CO)6 in THF yields [(Ph3PAu)5Mo(CO)4]+ (1), which can be crystallized from CH2Cl2/diisopropylether as orange 1 · PF6 · CH2Cl2 with the space group P21/c and a = 1681.4(5), b = 2215.6(12), c = 2761.5(9) pm, β = 91.54(3)°, Z = 4. The Au5Mo center of cluster 1 forms a capped trigonal bipyramid with the Mo atom in equatorial position and almost equal Mo—Au distances between 279.9(5) and 284.6(7) pm to all five Au atoms. The Au—Au distances range from 272.2(4) to 301.3(4) pm. The Mo(CO)4 group causes three v(C0) at 1975, 1915 and 1890cm-1. Reaction of Ph3PAuCo(CO)4 with Ph3PAuPF6 affords the known cluster cation [(Ph3PAu)4Co(CO)3]+ in high yield. It can be degraded with C1- to the neutral cluster (Ph3PAu)3Co(CO)3 (2). 2 forms air stable, yellow crystals with the space group P21/n and a = 1359.4(4), b = 2041.0(5), c = 1853.2(6)pm, β = 91.47(1)°, Z = 4. The Au3Co core of 2 has a tetrahedral structure with distances Co—Au between 250.4(1) and 254.0(2) pm and Au—Au between 279.5(1) and 285.1(1) pm. v(C0) are observed at 1963, 1905 and 1891 cm-1. Reaction of 2 with [(Ph3PAu)4Co(CO)3]+ yields the condensed cluster [(Ph3PAu)6AuCo2(CO)6]+.
    Notes: Die Photolyse einer Mischung von Ph3PAuN3 und Mo(CO)6 in THF ergibt den Cluster [(Ph3PAu)5Mo(CO)4]+ (l), der nach Zugabe von PF6- aus CH2Cl2/Diisopropylether als oranges 1 · PF6 · CH2Cl2 mit der Raumgruppe P21/c und a = 1681,4(5), b = 2215,6(12), c = 2761,5(9) pm, β = 91,54(3)°, Z = 4 kristallisiert. Das Au5Mo - Gerüst von 1 bildet eine einfach überkappte trigonale Bipyramide mit dem Mo - Atom in äquatorialer Position und nahezu gleich langen Mo—Au-Abständen von 279,9(5) bis 284,6(7) pm zu allen fünf Au-Atomen. Die Au—Au-Abstände liegen zwischen 272,2(4) und 301,3(4) pm. Die Valenzschwingungen v(Co) der Mo(CO)4-Gruppe werden bei 1975, 1915 und 1890cm-1 beobachtet. Reaktion von Ph3PAuCo(CO)4 mit Ph3PAuPF6 liefert das bereits bekannte Clusterkation [(Ph3PAu)4C(CO)3]+ in hoher Ausbeute. Es kann durch Umsetzung mit Cl- zum Neutralcluster (Ph3PAu)3Co(CO)3 (2) abgebaut werden. 2 bildet luftstabile, gelbe Kristalle rnit der Raumgruppe P21/n und a = 1359,4(4), b = 2041,0(5), c = 1853,2(6)pm, β = 91,47(1)°, Z = 4. Das Au3Co-Gerüst weist eine tetraedrische Struktur mit Abständen Co—Au zwischen 250,4(1) und 254,0(2) pm und Au—Au zwischen 279,5(1) pm und 285,1(1) pm auf. v(CO) treten bei 1963, 1905 und 1891 cm-1 auf. Reaktion von 2 mit [(Ph3PAu)4Co(CO)3]+ führt unter Clusterkondensation zu [(Ph3PAu)6AuCo2(CO)6]+.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Trigold manganese cluster ; (Ph3PAu)3Mn(CO)4 ; synthesis ; crystal structure ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Synthesis and Structure of (Ph3PAu)3Mn(CO)4Photolysis of (Ph3PAu)Mn(CO)5, Ph3PAuN3 and Ph3PAuNCO yields (Ph3PAu)3Mn(CO)4 (1). 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 1 031.3(1); b = 3 095.2(3), c = 3 386.3(3) pm; β = 97.58(3)°; Z = 8. The crystal structure contains two symmetry independent clusters 1 of the same geometry. Their inner core MnAu3 forms a rhombus with distances Mn—Au of about the same lengths between 258.4(4) and 262.0(4) pm. The distances Au—Au range from 276.6(2) to 281.3(2) pm. The bonding in 1 is discussed and compared with those of (Ph3PAu)3Co(CO)3 having the same total number of electrons but a tetrahedral framework.
    Notes: Photolyse einer Mischung von (Ph3PAu)Mn(CO)5, Ph3PAuN3 und Ph3PAuNCO in THF führt zur Bildung von (Ph3PAu)3Mn(CO)4 (1). 1 kristallisiert in der monoklinen Raumgruppe P21/n mit a = 1 031,3(1); b = 3 095,2(3), c = 3 386,3(3) pm; β = 97,58(3)°; Z = 8. Die Kristallstruktur enthält zwei symmetrieunabhängige Cluster 1 gleicher Gestalt, deren MnAu3-Gerüst die Struktur einer Raute mit nahezu gleich langen Mn—Au-Abständen zwischen 258,4(4) und 262,0(4) pm aufweist. Die Au—Au-Abstände liegen zwischen 276,6(2) und 281,3(2) pm. Die Bindungsverhältnisse in 1 werden diskutiert und mit denjenigen des Clusters (Ph3PAu)3Co(CO)3 mit gleicher Gesamtelektronenanzahl aber tetraedrischer Gerüststruktur verglichen.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Gold cluster compounds ; cobalt carbonyl gold cluster compounds ; preparation ; crystal structure ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Synthesis and Structure of [(Ph3PAu)6Co(CO)2](PF6) and [(Ph3PAu)7Co(CO)2](PF6)2By the reaction of (Ph3PAu)4Co[(CO)3]+ with OH- in the presence of excess Ph3PAuCl the larger cluster cations [(Ph3PAu)6Co(CO)2]+ (1) and [(Ph3PAu)7Co(CO)2]2+ (2) can be built up with 1 being the main product. 1 crystallizes with PF-6 as counterion in the monoclinic space group C2/c with a = 3008.3(6); b = 1339.1(2); c = 2909.4(6) pm; β = 103.08(1)°; Z = 4. The inner core of the cluster cation 1 with the symmetry C2 has the form of a bicapped trigonal bipyramid with the heteroatom in equatorial position, and distances Au—Au between 280.4(1) and 288.4(1) pm and Co—Au between 254.9(1) and 257.1(2) pm. 2 · (PF6)2 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 with a = 2155.7(1); b = 1720.6(1); c = 3543.6(1) pm; α = 91.89(1)°; β = 97.51(1); γ = 89.92(1)°; Z = 4. The unit cell contains two symmetry independent cluster cations 2 of about the same geometry. The cluster skeleton Au7Co can be described as fragment of an icosahedron formed by seven gold atoms with the Co atom in its center. The Au—Au distances range from 274.8(3) to 332.6(3) pm, and the Co—Au distances are 256.8(6) to 264.7(5) pm. The bonding in 1 and 2 is discussed.
    Notes: Durch Reaktion von [(Ph3PAu)4Co(CO)3]+ mit OH- in Gegenwart von überschüssigem Ph3PAuCl können die goldreicheren Clusterkationen [(Ph3PAu)6Co(CO)2]+ (1) und [(Ph3PAu)7Co(CO)2]2+ (2) aufgebaut werden, wobei 1 als Hauptprodukt anfällt. 1 kristallisiert mit PF-6 als Gegenion in der monoklinen Raumgruppe C2/c mit a = 3008,3(6); b = 1339,1(2); c = 2909,4(6) pm; β = 103,08(1)°; Z = 4. Im Clusterkation 1 mit der Symmetrie C2 bildet das CoAu6-Gerüst die Struktur einer zweifach überkappten trigonalen Bipyramide mit dem Heteroatom in äquatorialer Position. Die Au—Au-Abstände liegen zwischen 280,4(1) und 288,4(1) pm die Co—Au-Abstände zwischen 254,9(1) und 257,1(2) pm. 2 · (PF6)2 kristallisiert triklin in der Raumgruppe P1 mit a = 2155,7(1); b = 1720,6(1); c = 3543,6(1) pm; α = 91,89(1)°; β = 97,51(1)°; γ = 89,92(1)°; Z = 4. Die Elementarzelle enthält zwei symmetrieunabhängige Clusterkationen 2 mit nahezu gleicher Gestalt, deren Au7Co-Gerüst als leicht verzerrtes Ikosaederfragment aus sieben Au-Atomen mit dem Co-Atom im Zentrum beschrieben werden kann. Die Au—Au-Abstände variieren von 274,8(3) bis 332,6(3) pm, die Co—Au-Abstände betragen 256,8(6) bis 264,7(5) pm. Die Bindungsverhältnisse in 1 und 2 werden diskutiert.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0926-6593
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-09-20
    Description: Mycobacterium avium ( M. a. ) subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)—the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease—affects cattle, sheep, and other ruminants worldwide. To decipher phenotypic differences among sheep and cattle strains (belonging to MAP-S [Type-I/III], respectively, MAP-C [Type-II]), comparative genome analysis needs data from diverse isolates originating from different geographic regions of the world. This study presents the so far best assembled genome of a MAP-S-strain: Sheep isolate JIII-386 from Germany. One newly sequenced cattle isolate (JII-1961, Germany), four published MAP strains of MAP-C and MAP-S from the United States and Australia, and M. a. subsp. hominissuis (MAH) strain 104 were used for assembly improvement and comparisons. All genomes were annotated by BacProt and results compared with NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) annotation. Corresponding protein-coding sequences (CDSs) were detected, but also CDSs that were exclusively determined by either NCBI or BacProt. A new Shine–Dalgarno sequence motif (5'-AGCTGG-3') was extracted. Novel CDSs including PE-PGRS family protein genes and about 80 noncoding RNAs exhibiting high sequence conservation are presented. Previously found genetic differences between MAP-types are partially revised. Four of ten assumed MAP-S-specific large sequence polymorphism regions (LSP S s) are still present in MAP-C strains; new LSP S s were identified. Independently of the regional origin of the strains, the number of individual CDSs and single nucleotide variants confirms the strong similarity of MAP-C strains and shows higher diversity among MAP-S strains. This study gives ambiguous results regarding the hypothesis that MAP-S is the evolutionary intermediate between MAH and MAP-C, but it clearly shows a higher similarity of MAP to MAH than to Mycobacterium intracellulare .
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-09-28
    Description: Radio-frequency heating to enhance soil decontamination requires adjusted solutions for the electrode design depending on scale and remediation technique. Parallel plate electrodes provide widely homogeneous field and temperature distributions and are, therefore, most suitable for supporting biodegradation processes. For thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, certain temperature gradients can be accepted and, therefore, the less-demanding geometry of rod-shaped electrodes is usually applied. For electrode lengths of some meters, a design with an air gap has to be used in order to focus heating to the desired depth. Perforated rod electrodes may be simultaneously employed as extraction wells. Placing an oxidation catalyst in situ within the electrodes is an option for handling of highly loaded air flows. Coaxial antenna may be utilized to selectively heat soil compartments far from the surface of the soil. Radio-frequency heating to enhance soil decontamination requires adjusted solutions for the electrode design depending on the scale and the remediation technique. Parallel plate electrodes provide widely homogeneous temperature distributions. For enhanced soil vapor extraction, rod-shaped electrodes simultaneously acting as extraction wells are usually applied.
    Print ISSN: 0930-7516
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-4125
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Published by Wiley
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-06
    Description: Over the past decade, long-term socio-ecological research (LTSER) has been established to better integrate social science research and societal concerns into the goals and objectives of the International Long-Term Ecological Research (ILTER) network, an established global network of long-term ecological monitoring sites. The Horizon 2020 eLTER project, currently underway, includes as one of its key objectives to evaluate the performance of LTSER platforms. This article reflects part of this evaluation: six LTSER platforms were assessed through site visits of the lead author, coupled with reflections and insights of the platform managers, who are also co-authors. We provide background for the mission and goals of LTSER, then assess the six international LTSER platforms—Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER, USA; Braila Island LTSER, Romania; Cairngorms LTSER, UK; Doñana LTSER, Spain; Omora Ethnobotanical Park Cape Horn LTER, Chile; and Sierra Nevada LTSER, Spain. While based on a strong...
    Print ISSN: 1748-9318
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-9326
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: Remolding of tRNAs is a well-documented process in mitochondrial genomes that changes the identity of a tRNA. It involves a duplication of a tRNA gene, a mutation that changes the anticodon and the loss of the ancestral tRNA gene. The net effect is a functional tRNA that is more closely related to tRNAs of a different alloacceptor family than to tRNAs with the same anticodon in related species. Beyond being of interest for understanding mitochondrial tRNA function and evolution, tRNA remolding events can lead to artifacts in the annotation of mitogenomes and thus in studies of mitogenomic evolution. Therefore, it is important to identify and catalog these events. Here we describe novel methods to detect tRNA remolding in large-scale data sets and apply them to survey tRNA remolding throughout animal evolution. We identify several novel remolding events in addition to the ones previously mentioned in the literature. A detailed analysis of these remoldings showed that many of them are derived from ancestral events.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-04-01
    Print ISSN: 0012-821X
    Electronic ISSN: 1385-013X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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