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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Chloroplast in vivo splicing ; Group-II intron ; In vitro splicing ; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The mitochondrial intron rI1 is a self-splicing group-II intron of algal mitochondria that can be transferred into chloroplasts from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for in vivo investigations (Herdenberger et al. 1994). Thus, rI1 is a suitable system to compare in vitro and in vivo RNA processing. Interestingly, rI1 shows correct RNA splicing, although typical cis-acting exon-sequences (IBS2, δ) of group-II introns are lacking. In order to examine the effect of these exon-intron interactions on splicing, we introduced the endogenous mitochondrial IBS2 sequence in order to produce optimal IBS2-EBS2 base pairing. In addition, the first nucleotide of the 3′exon (δ′) was substituted to create an optimal δ-δ′ interaction. Neither of the two mutations, nor a combination of both, had any effect on the precision of the splice-site selection. Unexpectedly, introduction of IBS2 led to a reduction in the efficiency of the second splicing step in vitro but not in vivo. These findings lead us to conclude that trans-acting factors are present in vivo to optimize splicing efficiency. The possibility is discussed that these factors may, for example, stabilize tertiary intron structures that are a prerequisite for correct RNA processing. Furthermore, our data indicate that similar trans-acting factors promote correct intron splicing in chloroplasts and mitochondria.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Brauchbarkeit verschiedener histologischer Vorbehandlungsmethoden für Untersuchungen der Blut-Hirn-Schranke mit fluorescenzmarkiertem Gamma-Globulin wurde an Gehirnen normaler Meerschweinchen sowie in der Umgebung einer kortikalen Kältenekrose am Katzenhirn untersucht. Neben der Gefriertrocknung erwies sich die Methode der Freeze Substitution am Kryostatschnitt (Chang und Hori, 1961) als sehr zuverlässig. Es wurde darauf hingewiesen, daß einfache Formolfixierung der entnommenen Gewebsblöcke nur dann zuverlässige Resultate liefert, wenn diese entsprechend klein sind, so daß eine schnelle Durchfixierung gewährleistet ist. Als unbrauchbar erwiesen sich die Alkoholfixierung sowie die Nachfixierung von Kryostatschnitten in Alkohol oder Formol.
    Notes: Summary The usefulness of several histological methods for studying the blood-brain-barrier by fluorescent labelled gamma globulin was compared. Brain tissue from normal guinea pigs and from a cat subjected to cortical cold injury were used in this study. The best results were obtained with the freezing and drying technique and the section freeze substitution method of Chang and Hori (1961). Simple formalin fixation produced artefacts when the tissue blocks were too big for a fast fixation. Alcohol and mounted cryostat section fixation gave unsatisfactory results.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es werden zwei Methoden zum histochemischen Nachweis von Schwefelsäureestern mitgeteilt, die beide auf der Verwendung von Trypaflavin beruhen. Einmal wird der Farbstoff als einfaches Fluorochrom verwendet, die Schwefelsäureester sind dabei durch ihre orange-gelbe Fluoreszenzmetachromasie erkennbar (Methode I). Das andere Verfahren bietet die Möglichkeit, das bereits angelagerte Fluorochrom mit p-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyd zu einem rot gefärbtem Komplex umzusetzen (Methode II). Färbungsvorgang, Spezifität und Haltbarkeit wurden näher untersucht. Anwendung zum Nachweis von Cerebrosidsch wefelsäureester-Ablagerungen, Mastzellengranula und, nach vorausgegangener Sulfatierung, zur elektiven Pilzdarstellung.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 9 (1953), S. 468-469 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Autoantikörper bei der hämolytischen Anämie können durch Absorptionsverfahren aufgetrennt werden. Sie können aus einer spezifischen und einer unspezifischen Komponente bestehen. Die spezifische Komponente kann gegen ein homologes Blutgruppen-antigen gerichtet sein. Die unspezifische Komponente hat den Charakter eines Pan-Antikörpers. Die Antikörper-Komponenten können sich qualitativ (eventuell auch quantitativ) verschiedentlich verhalten. Im vorliegenden Falle ist die blutgruppenspezifische Komponente sowohl an den Erythrozyten als auch im Serum vorhanden, die unspezifische Komponente nur an die Erythrozyten gebunden.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: PACS: 81.15.G; 85.60.J; 78.60.F; 68.55.J; 78.66
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. The distribution of Ge islands is analysed in order to understand their optical behaviour. The Ge islands described in this paper were deposited by low-pressure chemical vapour deposition at relatively high temperature (700 °C), therefore the diffusion length of adatoms is high (∼100 μm) and thus, not the limiting factor for nucleation. By changing the deposition time and the coverage, square-based pyramids, domes and relaxed domes are nucleated. Mainly domes emit light, the emission being in the wavelength range 1.38–1.55 μm. When pyramids or relaxed domes are present, the photoluminescence broadens and decreases in intensity. The electroluminescence of vertically correlated islands increases with the number of layers, i.e. with the number of islands. The nucleation of islands on patterned (001) Si is changed when the deposition is performed on Si mesas with high index facets. The size distribution becomes narrower when the mesa size is decreased. An intermixing of up to 40% Si in the 2D layer was determined from photoluminescence data. PIN diodes fabricated on patterned wafers show an area-dependent electroluminecence related to a different microstructure of islands on large and small mesas. Finally, the lateral ordering on {hkl} facets is discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Mit einem Oxytocin-Albumin-Konjugat bzw. mit einem Lysin-Vasopressin-Albumin-Konjugat konnten bei Kaninchen spezifische Antikörper hervorgerufen werden. Die gegen Oxytocin-Albumin-Konjugat gerichteten Antikörper scheinen auch einen gewissen inaktivierenden Effekt auf genuines Oxytocin zu haben.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Mice homozygous for the human CD3-£ transgene, tg 826 (ref. 13), were compared with RAG-2" ~ (null) mutant mice14 to analyse the structure and function of the thymic micro-environment. Transgenic (tg) £26 animals have an almost complete arrest very early in T-cell development; only 2-3% ...
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Bacterial quinones were extracted with pentane, and homologues or other quinones were reincorporated. In spite of the redox potential difference of 110 mV, menaquinone and demethylmenaquinone could replace each other in aerobic electron transport and fumarate respiration ofHaemophilus influenzae RAMC 18 Bensted andProteus mirabilis Harding & Nicholson. The enzymes involved may recognize the naphthoquinone structure and are not specific for menaquinone or demethylmenaquinone. Ubiquinone was not replaced in aerobic electron transport by naphthoquinones withPseudomonas fluorescens 28/5 Rhodes orAcinetobacter sp. 661/60 Mannheim, probably owing to the specificity for benzoquinones of the enzymes involved, since the redox potential difference between demethylmenaquinone and ubiquinone is only 76 mV.Haemophilus parainfluenzae 429 Pittman, which resembles aerobic bacteria with respect to the terminal electron transport system, could incorporate demethylmenaquinone or menaquinone. This organism seems to be defective in the synthesis of naphthoquinones but possesses the enzyme system for fumarate respiration.Haemophilus influenzae RAMC 18 Bensted, which produces only demethylmenaquinone, seems to be defective in synthesizing ubiquinone, but it also possesses the enzymes for a ubiquinonemediated aerobic respiration.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR-Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive genetic disease among Caucasians. About 1 in 20 people, though healthy, is a carrier, and 1 in 2,000 newborns is affected by the disease. No reliable biochemical marker is available for the defective gene which has been localized on ...
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