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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Recent studies suggest that airborne Asian dust may not only play an important role in the regional radiation budget, but also influence the air quality over North America through long-range transport. In this paper, we use satellite data to investigate the long-term variability of airborne Asian dust as well as the daily variation of the dust aerosol distribution. By combining the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) wind data, our analysis shows a strong correlation between the generation of dust storms in the region and the passage of springtime weather fronts. This is consistent with earlier studies performed by other researchers. According to both the Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data the Takla Makan desert, the Gobi desert, and the and region of Inner Mongolia are major sources of the eastward-flowing airborne Asian dust. Heavily populated areas in eastern China (e.g., Beijing) are often on the primary path of the dust storms originating in these desert regions. The increasing desertification north of the Beijing region has served to exacerbate problems stemming from these storms. The time series derived from 20 years of TOMS aerosol index data shows the first significant satellite evidence of the atmospheric effect of increasing desertification, indicating that the amount of dust blown eastward has increased strongly during the past few years including the year 2000.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: An updated set of time series of derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström’s exponent a from a number of Arctic and Antarctic stations was analyzed to determine the long-term variations of these two parameters. The Arctic measurements were performed at Ny-Ålesund (1991e2010), Barrow (1977e2010) and some Siberian sites (1981e1991). The data were integrated with Level 2.0 AERONET sun-photometer measurements recorded at Hornsund, Svalbard, and Barrow for recent years, and at Tiksi for the summer 2010. The Antarctic data-set comprises sun-photometer measurements performed at Mirny (1982e2009), Neumayer (1991e2004), and Terra Nova Bay (1987e2005), and at South Pole (1977e2010). Analyses of daily mean AOD were made in the Arctic by (i) adjusting values to eliminate volcanic effects due to the El Chichón, Pinatubo, Kasatochi and Sarychev eruptions, and (ii) selecting the summer background aerosol data from those affected by forest fire smoke. Nearly null values of the long-term variation of summer background AOD were obtained at Ny-Ålesund (1991e2010) and at Barrow (1977e2010). No evidence of important variations in AOD was found when comparing the monthly mean values of AOD measured at Tiksi in summer 2010 with those derived from multi-filter actinometer measurements performed in the late 1980s at some Siberian sites. The long-term variations of seasonal mean AOD for Arctic Haze (AH) conditions and AH episode seasonal frequency were also evaluated, finding that these parameters underwent large fluctuations over the 35-year period at Ny-Ålesund and Barrow, without presenting well- defined long-term variations. A characterization of chemical composition, complex refractive index and single scattering albedo of ground-level aerosol polydispersions in summer and winterespring is also presented, based on results mainly found in the literature. The long-term variation in Antarctic AOD was estimated to be stable, within `0.10% per year, at the three coastal sites, and nearly null at South Pole, where a weak increase was only recently observed, associated with an appreciable decrease in a, plausibly due to the formation of thin stratospheric layers of ageing volcanic particles. The main characteristics of chemical composition, complex refractive index and single scattering albedo of Antarctic aerosols are also presented for coastal particles sampled at Neumayer and Terra Nova Bay, and continental particles at South Pole.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-11-25
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 114 (2009): D06204, doi:10.1029/2008JD011257.
    Description: The paper presents the current status of the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN), which has been developed as a component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). MAN deploys Microtops handheld Sun photometers and utilizes the calibration procedure and data processing (Version 2) traceable to AERONET. A web site dedicated to the MAN activity is described. A brief historical perspective is given to aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements over the oceans. A short summary of the existing data, collected on board ships of opportunity during the NASA Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project is presented. Globally averaged oceanic aerosol optical depth (derived from island-based AERONET measurements) at 500 nm is ∼0.11 and Angstrom parameter (computed within spectral range 440–870 nm) is calculated to be ∼0.6. First results from the cruises contributing to the Maritime Aerosol Network are shown. MAN ship-based aerosol optical depth compares well to simultaneous island and near-coastal AERONET site AOD.
    Description: The work of Tymon Zielinski was supported by Polish national grant AERONET59.
    Keywords: Aerosol optical depth ; Maritime aerosol ; Network
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-05-31
    Description: The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been collecting data over the oceans since November 2006. Over 80 cruises were completed through early 2010 with deployments continuing. Measurement areas included various parts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Northern and Southern Pacific Ocean, the South Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and inland seas. MAN deploys Microtops hand-held sunphotometers and utilizes a calibration procedure and data processing traceable to AERONET. Data collection included areas that previously had no aerosol optical depth (AOD) coverage at all, particularly vast areas of the Southern Ocean. The MAN data archive provides a valuable resource for aerosol studies in maritime environments. In the current paper we present results of AOD measurements over the oceans, and make a comparison with satellite AOD retrievals and model simulations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: In order to monitor the aerosol characteristics needed for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed data, a network of sun photometers was established in the Sahel region of Senegal, Mali, and Niger. Data analysis suggests that there is a high spatial variability of the aerosol optical thickness tau(a) in the western Sahel region. At a 67 percent confidence level the instantaneous values of tau(a) can be extrapolated approximately 270-400 km with an error tolerance of 50 percent. Spatial variability in the dry season is found to be of a similar magnitude. The ranges of variations in the NDVI in the Sahel region are shown to be approximately 0.02 and 0.01, respectively, due to commonly observed fluctuations in the aerosol optical thickness and aerosol size distribution.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 12; 1147-116
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Remote sensing of aerosol optical thickness from space is difficult over continental surfaces. There are two retrieval algorithms, one based on the use of dark targets and a second based on contrast reduction between selected pixels. Improvements in the contrast reduction method are reported. A procedure is developed for using the satellite image to evaluate whether conditions for applying the structure method are met. The theoretical background is discussed, and the usefulness of the structure functions is demonstrated. The method is applied to NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery where simultaneous ground measurements are used for validation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1474-1477.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A new generation of automatic sunphotometers is used to systematically monitor clear sky total column aerosol concentration and optical properties, precipitable water and total column ozone diurnally and annually in West Africa and South America. The instruments are designed to measure direct beam sun, solar aureole and sky radiances in nine narrow spectral bands from the UV to the near infrared on an hourly basis. The instrumentation and the algorithms required to reduce the data for subsequent analysis are described.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 738, 739.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A method for calibrating satellite sensors (such as the AVHRR visible and NIR bands) is proposed by which the sensors are calibrated using well-known physical characteristics of the atmosphere, ocean, and deserts, as well as the digital satellite imagery. The approach, independent of ground support, used the following three phenomena: molecular scattering over the ocean for absolute visible band calibration; ocean glint, to transfer the calibration from the visible band to the NIR band; and desert reflectance to monitor, independently, the stability of the visible and NIR bands. The method was applied to NOAA-7, -9, and -11 sensors. The results of the ocean and the desert calibration methods were found to differ in the brightness range and the spectral response of the radiance source (molecular scattering over the ocean versus the desert reflectance).
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 14; 1; p. 21-52.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A 100 km by 200 km area of the Sahel was selected to demonstrate a new method of extracting hemispherical reflectance (albedo) from directional satellite data. Utilizing a stratification of the Gao region of Mali based on soil texture, satellite data for homogeneous areas were selected. These data were employed in a knowledge-based expert system called VEG, which is designed to handle a wide variety of types of input data. The calculated directional reflectance factors at ground level are very similar to ground measurements noted in the literature.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 13; 275-289
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Results are presented on measurements of the trace gas and particulate matter emissions due to biomass burning during deforestation and grassland fires in South America, conducted as part of the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas in September 1989. Field observations by an instrumented aircraft were used to estimate concentrations of O3, CO2, CO, CH4, and particulate matter. Fires were observed from satellite imagery, and the smoke optical thickness, particle size, and profiles of the extinction coefficient were measured from the aircraft and from the ground. Four smoke plumes were sampled, three vertical profiles were measured, and extensive ground measurements of smoke optical characteristics were carried out for different smoke types. The simultaneous measurements of the trace gases, smoke particles, and the distribution of fires were used to correlate biomass burning with the elevated levels of ozone.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D13,; 14
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